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December 2017 -
Volume 15, Issue 10

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From the Editor



Original Contribution/Clinical Investigation

Irritable bowel syndrome and smoking

Mehmet Rami Helvaci, Orhan Ayyildiz, Mustafa Cem Algin, Yusuf Aydin, Abdulrazak Abyad, Lesley Pocock
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93130

Assessment of Coronary Artery Involvement and Its Relevant Factors in Children with Kawasaki Disease
Mahsa Besharati, Sajad Rezvan, Mohammadhossein Arjmandnia
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93134

Effectiveness of positive thinking skills on Life expectancy and self-concept in patients with multiple sclerosis
Maryam Talebloo, Gholamreza Zakeripour
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93131

The relationship between prolonged sitting position and adaptive alterations in lumbar spine and pelvic range of motion in cyclists with chronic low back pain
Sara Zamiri
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93132

Risk factors of suicide attempt in Iran
Zahra Bazargani, Marjan Anvar, Ali Fakhri
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93133

Comparison of the Effects of Religious Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (RCBT), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and Sertraline on Depression in Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: a Randomized Controlled Trial
Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini, Alireza Rafiei, Ali Gaemian, Abdolhakim Tirgari, Aliasghar Zakavi, Jamshid Yazdani, Jafar Bolhari, Mahmood Golzari, Zahra Esmaeili Douki, Nazanin Vaezzadeh
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93135

The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Existential Group Therapy on Reducing Demoralization in the Elderly
Roya Marsa, Bahman Bahmani, Maede Naghiyaee, Somayeh Barekati
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93136

Low-dose versus high-dose vitamin D supplementation and pregnancy outcome in gestational diabetes
Farahnaz Keshavarzi, Anisodowleh Nankali, Farzaneh Azizi, Maryam Hematti
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93137

Endothelial function and flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery in pre-eclampsia: colour Doppler ultrasound study
Negin Rezavand, Firoozeh Veisi, Maryam Zangeneh, Seyede Sepide Naghibi,
Seyed Mohammad Saleh Seyedzadeh, Mansour Rezaei

DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93138

Investigating the Factors Affecting Short-Term Mortality Rate in Patients with Acute Chest Pain
Ali Bidari, Mehran Sotoodehnia, Mahdi Rezai, Reza Mosaddegh, Mohamad Tahmasbi Sisakht
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93139

Relationship between Mortality Rate of Patients with Acute Chest Pain and Time Trends of Request to Pre-Hospital Emergency Medical Services in Tehran, Iran
Ali Bidari, Mehran Sotoodehnia, Mahdi Rezai, Reza Mosaddegh, Mohamad Tahmasbi Sisakht
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93140

An Investigation of the Effect of Listening to the Voice of the Holy Quran on Vital Signs and Consciousness Level of the Patients Admitted to the ICU Wards of Zabol University of Medical Sciences Hospitals
Ali Akbar Nasiri, Hossein Shahdadi, Ali Mansouri, Hossein Lakzaei
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93142

Comparative study on the effect of oral consumption of isotonic and water fluids on thirst, nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery in the ICU unit
Khadijeh Nasiriani, Kamran Ghods, Malihe Ghazvini
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93143

The Effect of Massage of Hugo Point on Severity of Pain in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Shahla Najafi Doulatabad, Mohamad Taher Rezanejad, Ardeshir Afrasiabifar, Reza Chaman
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93141

Population and Community Studies

Years of potential life lost in the south of Iran in 2011 and 2015: A population-based study
Vahid Rahmanian, Karamatollah Rahmanian, Elham Mansoorian, Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi, Abdolhossein Madani
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93144

The family centered empowerment program can relieve stress, anxiety, and depression of heart failure patients' family caregivers
Shahram Etemadifar, Masoud Bahrami, Mohsen Shahriari, Fereydoon Khayeri,
Reza Masoudi, Seyed Mohammad Afzali

DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93145

Dimensions of developmental function of family in predicting the executive functions of deaf students
Sakineh Soltani Kuhbanani
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93146

Epidemiologic Study of Colposcopy in Clinical Centers of Kermanshah, Iran, during 2006 to 2011
Maryam Zangeneh, Maryam Hematti, Nasrin Jalilian, Seyedeh Nakisa Niknejad
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93147

The Effectiveness of Group Hope Therapy Training on Psychological Well-Being and Resilience in Divorced Women
Parvin Abbasi, Fatemeh Mahmoodi, Arash Ziapour, Fatemeh Dehghan, Elham Parvane
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93149

Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Death Anxiety and Death Obsession in the Elderly
Akram Bayati, Parvin Abbasi, Arash Ziapour, Elham Parvane, Fatemeh Dehghan
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93148

The correlation between spiritual wellbeing and depression in elderly patients with cancer in Iran
Manizheh Amirmohamadi, Fariba Borhani, Mehrzad Kiani, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Bahar Naghavi
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93152

The effect of anger management training through cognitive-behavioural procedure on reducing marital conflicts
Nazanin Tayebi, Farag Lotfi Kashani, Bager Sanayi Zaker
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93150

Evaluating the impact of discharge nurse activities on the re-hospitalization of premature neonates and mothers' quality of life
Molok Rayati, Azam Shirinabadi Farahani , Anahita Masoumpoor, Mohamad Amain
Pourhoseingholi, Arezoo Hemati
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93153

Evaluation of Malnutrition Status in Patients admitted to Shahid Rajaee Hospital in Gachsaran City in 2016
Seyed Saadat Gholami, Tahereh Moshkelgosha Ardekani, Keianoush Karami, Atefeh Taheri, Mohammad Gholamnezhad
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93154

Evaluating Relationship between the Implementation of Healthcare Reform and Patient Satisfaction in Health Care Centers of Yasuj
Mehrabi Saadat, Ayatollah Davar Panah, Fariba Noroozi, Ahmad Alamdari
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93155

Relationship between Body Image Concern, Difficulty in Emotion Regulation, and Sexual Satisfaction of Healthy with Mastectomy Women
Masoomeh Noori, Flor Khayatan
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93151

Clinical Research and Methods

Live experience of nurses about occupational exposures in emergency wards
Esmaeil Mohammadnejad, Nahid Dehghan Nayeri, Ayshe hajiesmaeilpoor
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93156

The Effectiveness of Self-Encouragement Skills Training on Genital Self-Image in Women with Physical-Motor Handicap (in southeast of Iran)
Iran Ghaderi, Tayebeh Sharif, Kamal Solati
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93157

A comparative study on the effects of raisin extract and fluoxetine on depression symptoms in mice
Mehrdad Modaresi, , Firouzeh Shiran , Ilnaz Sajjadian
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93158

Antimicrobial Effects of Hydroxytyrosol Extracted From Olive Leaves on Propionibacterium Acnes
Owrang Eilami,Manuela Oliverio,Saeid Hosseinian, AminHossaini Motlagh, Mohsen Naghmachi
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93159

The Epidemiology of Sudden Cardiac Death; a Forensic Autopsy Study in Iran 2013-2016
Nikpour Sara, Najari Fares, Emamhadi Mohammadali
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93160

Survey of Relationship Between Changes in Serum levels of Procalcitonin With Response to Treatment in Patients With SIRS Positive Acute Pyelonephritis
Sayyedzaker Saeedinejad, Mohammad Shirvani, Navid Omidifar
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93161


Effects and mechanisms of medicinal plants on dopamine reward system to reduce complication of substance abuse: A systematic review

Kamal Solati, Majid Asadi-Samani, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani, Lesley Pocock
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93162

Medicinal plants effective on prolactin: A systematic review
Karamali Kasiri, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani, Lesley Pocock,
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93164

Complications of vaginal delivery after previous cesarian delivery
Malihe Botyar, Maryam Heidarian Noor
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93163

Education and Training

The Relationship between Organizational Culture Based on Hofstede Model and Personality Assassination Among Educational Staff in Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2017
Najafi Doulatabad S, Afrasiabifar A, Zarei R
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93165

Evaluation of Quality of Work Life and its Dimensions in Iranian Higher Education
Susan Bahrami, Abbas Habibzadeh
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93166

Effective Factors of Professional Ethical Competency in Medical Students: A Qualitative Study
Javad Rajabi Alleni, Fariba Borhani, Abbas Ebadi, Shabnam Bazmi, Mehrzad Kiani
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93167

The Effect of Self-Regulatory Learning Strategies on Academic Engagement and Task Value
Vahid Montazeri Hedeshi
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93168

An Assessment of the Relationship between Social Support and Mental Health of Students of Zabol University of Medical Science in 2017
Hossein Shahdadi, Ali Mansouri, Ali Akbar Nasiri
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93169

Cross cultural differences in students with regard to study habit - counselling as an intervention
Zahra Farahzadi
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93170

The Effect of Principles of Islamic Management on Improving the Work Process of the Organization (Case Study of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences)
Arsalan Azizi, Yousef Chekah, Kowsar Dastani Kashkoli, Ahmad Alamdari
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93171

Comparing the Life Quality of Female Students with and without Primary Dysmenorrhea in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in 2016
Maliheh Rahmati , Mohammad Hosseinifar , Asghar Akbari , Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Sharareh Sanei Sistani, Fateme Ghiasi , Ahmadreza Asgari
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93172

Case series and Case reports

Retained placenta managed surgically by hysterotomy: A case report
Mahtab Motevasselian, Behnaz Amirnazari, Sara Bahramzade
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93173

Epidural Abscess caused by Brucellosis: A Case Report and Review of Literature
Marzieh Soheili, Anvar Elyas
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93174

Eventration of Diaphragm: A Case Report and Review of Literature
Marzieh Soheili, Anvar Elyasi
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93175

Health and Safety issues in the Community

Effect of Education by Focus Group Discussion on Mothers' Performance and Awareness of Domestic Accidents in Children
Ali Mansouri, Ali Akbar Nasiri, Hossein Shahdadi
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93176

The patient safety culture from the perspective of emergency nurses
Abolfazl Farsaraei , Ahmad Mirza Aghazadeh , Mozhgan Lotfi , Zahra Sheikhalipour
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93177

Study of Different Wheat Cultivars Using the ISSR Marker
Mostafa 'Ebadi, Mahsa Eqbali
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93178

Identifying and Assessing the Process Risks of Ammonia Refrigeration Room by Using the HAZOP Technique to Provide Solutions to Control and Reduce Accidents in Food Industry
Sanaz Pir Delkhoshi Chobari,
Samira Ghiyasi

DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93179


A New Perspective in Baboon Cardiac Xeno Transplatation
Hassan Mir Mohammad Sadeghi
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.93180

Mental Health

Mental Health in the Elderly and Its Predictive Factors
Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, Akram Ghanbari Moghaddam, Hasan Khoshnou,
Zeinab Karbalaee, Mojtaba Mohammadi.

DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2017.9318

Middle East Quality Improvement Program

Chief Editor -
Abdulrazak Abyad MD, MPH, MBA, AGSF, AFCHSE


Publisher -
Lesley Pocock
medi+WORLD International
11 Colston Avenue,
Sherbrooke 3789
Phone: +61 (3) 9005 9847
Fax: +61 (3) 9012 5857

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While all efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this journal, opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of The Publishers, Editor or the Editorial Board. The publishers, Editor and Editorial Board cannot be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal; or the views and opinions expressed. Publication of any advertisements does not constitute any endorsement by the Publishers and Editors of the product advertised.

The contents of this journal are copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for purposes of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Australian Copyright Act, no part of this program may be reproduced without the permission of the publisher.

January 2018 - Volume 16, Issue 1

From the Editor

In this issue there are a good number of papers dealing with clinical and basic research, in addition to good number of paper on woman health. We are starting with this issue as well as special series on learning difficulties a problem that is faced by family physicians and good understanding of the problem improve management outcome. Helvaci, M.R et al tried to understand significance of hyperlipoproteinemias, clinically. The authors concluded that the accelerated atherosclerotic process all over the body may be the major consequence of the metabolic syndrome. Hyperlipoproteinemias may actually be acute phase reactants indicating the disseminated endothelial damage, inflammation, fibrosis, and eventual atherosclerosis by aging all over the body.

A number of authors dealt with woman issues, Hasan, A et al; address the significance of sonographic diagnosis of vasa previa in pregnancy outcome. They performed a multicenter study in 3 private hospitals in Iraq during a 5 years period. The authors concluded that although vasa previa is a rare lethal complication, Antenatal diagnosis is essential to improve fetal survival by colour Doppler ultrasonography. Heidari, G et al carried a descriptive study to evaluate the frequency of vaginal delivery following a previous C section. Based on this study, the phrase "once a cesarean, always cesarean" can change to "once a cesarean, often vaginal delivery". Moradabadi A.S et al conducted a research on on primiparous women in Bandar Abbas based on the health belief model. The authors concluded that it appears that enacting appropriate instructional plans by the medical staff can be effective in raising women's susceptibility and perceived severity of the consequences of cesarean.

Zarchi, M.K et al; did a cross-sectional study to investigate the clinical characteristics and 5 year survival rate of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. According to 5-year decrease in survival rate with increasing stage of disease, screening of this cancer in at risk populations is essential for early diagnosis. Mokaberinejad, R; did a randomized, clinical trial was performed on 64 pregnant women with unexplained asymmetric Fetal Growth Restriction. The authors concluded that the potential of dietary treatment through the advises of Iranian traditional (Persian) medicine should be given more attention in helping to solve the challenges of modern medicine as a low-risk and low-cost method. Masihi S et al; studied the association of CVS and amniocentesis for Down syndrome with fetal loss was assessed. According to obtained results, it may be concluded that there is no association between CVS and amniocentesis for Down syndrome with fetal loss. Safi S et al; carried a cross sectional-analytical research conducted on 110 Mastectomy and Lumpectomy samples of breast cancer. They concluded that Further expression of ER in tumors with lower grades is predictable. As a result, it can be used as an indicator to predict better prognosis among patients with breast invasive cancer.

A number of papers presented alternative medicine approach. Aalami,H et al; showed that hybrid aromatherapy as a cost effective and uncomplicated method can improve sleep quality of patients with ACS admitted to CCU. Rafii, F et al; showed that training MS patients with urinary incontinence to perform pelvic floor muscle exercises can reduce the severity of their urinary disorders and promote their quality of life. Mehrdad M et al; compared the effects of chamomile's hydro alcoholic extract and imipramine on decreasing depression of laboratory mice. They concluded that chamomile extract can be a replacement for imipramine to reduce the depression symptoms, dose dependently. Mojtabaee, M et al; scrutinize the effect of the persian medicine "Milk-Cuscuta" on the hyperpigmentation of skin in the patients with melisma. The findings demonstrate that the consumption of the Cuscuta extract with milk can reduce the synthesis of melatonin and consequently results in the elimination of melasma.

Biabani, F et al; conducted a study to examine the effect of muscle relaxation on dialysis adequacy in patients on hemodialysis. The authors concluded that the increased dialysis adequacy and its safety and ease, it is recommended that muscle relaxation be taught in hemodialysis wards.

A number of papers dealt with psychological aspects. Momtazi, S et al; showed that motivational interviewing as a group therapy was effective in glycemic control as well as treatment satisfaction of type 2 diabetes patients. Farahzadi S et el; showed that education is empowering couples group therapy on marital satisfaction have been effective in the experimental group. Moghadam L.Z et al; determined tend to rhinoplasty in terms of self-esteem and body image concern among university students. The results of this study show that the intention of doing rhinoplasty surgery among university students affected by level of their Self-esteem and also their concerns about their body image. Mohammadi, P et al; noted that observing patient rights by the healthcare staff and patients' awareness of the patient rights charter are crucial behavioral factors in hospitals that should be given a high priority so as to improve inpatients' recovery and comfort. Ghorbani, N et al clarifies the taking effect of self-compassion from culture and inconsistency of the Persian culture on self-compassion. Alboativi, H et al recommended based on their study that health care centers and the centers that are associated with veterans uses this intervention method in relation to veterans.

Ziaei, T et al; investigated the effectiveness of self-awareness based individual counseling on self-awareness of women in reproductive age. The authors concluded that the self-awareness based individual counseling session shows a positive effect on enhancing the private and public self-awareness and reducing social anxiety. Dehbaneh M.A et al; through their study concluded that early maladaptive schemas and dysfunctional attitudes and emotional-focused coping strategies can be important factors in the formation of body dysmorphic disorder. Shiravani, A et al tried to investigate the relationship between social trust and social indifference of the citizens. They concluded that, the relationship between public trust and political trust with social indifference has also been reported significant and negative.

Pondehnezhadan, A et al; showed that schema therapy leads to an increase in satisfaction with body-image, elevation of self-concept and reduction of body maladaptive schemata in the Patients with deformity in experimental group, compared to the control group. Siadatnezhad, S et al; aimed to translate and culturally adapt the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) in an Iranian target group. They recommend that the PGS-P be used to assess grief severity in parents after perinatal loss and to identify high-risk women who are more vulnerable so that the healthcare system could help them.

A number of papers dealt with basic research. Hovsepian S et al; investigated the interaction of some lipid regulatory genes polymorphisms with obesity in the occurrence of MetS in children. Identification of such interactions between modifiers like obesity with genetic variants could be helpful in development of preventative strategies for reducing the increasing trend of MetS in children. Farshchian, N et al compared RI and PSV of the MCA in normal fetuses vs. fetuses with mutation of the beta-thalassemia gene. The authors concluded that PSV of the MCA of fetuses with major beta-thalassemia was higher than normal fetuses. Abtahi, M.M et al; looked at the biological dosimetry method: a probable way for measuring percent depth dose. The authors recommend more research to make the biological dosimeters as a precise method for radiation therapy.

A topic of growing interest is safety and health. Porkavosh S et al; carried a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study, they concluded that the adverse effects of VOCs on human and environmental health as well as the role of these pollutants in the formation of photochemical oxidants, appropriate actions related to monitoring and controlling these compounds should be considered in urban air. Maleki, A et al through a clinical trial concluded that the active warming of the patients in the operating room prevents reduced body central temperature. Also, the warming of the patients for a short time prevents the occurrence of hypothermia. Kashani, F.R et al; demonstrated that the establishment of patient safety standards can exert a significant effect on the quality of patient identification, blood typing, and the implementation of tests for determining ABO compatibility and blood transport and conservation in the haemovigilance system.

Keikhaei, F et al; assessed health literacy, determine lifestyle based on four dimensions of nutrition, physical activity, interpersonal relations, and mental health. Therefore, educations and interventions in this group of people is recommended to improve health literacy. Almasi K et al; conducted a study to determine PLSs of nursing and midwifery students. The authors concluded that visual styles are the most common learning style for nursing and midwifery students.

Bendak L; investigated the importance of reading repetition for slow learners which reflects positively on their reading fluency and passage comprehension. The Results of this study showed significant statistical differences to the benefit of the experimental group over the control group regarding reading fluency and passage comprehension. Khalaj, E et al; investigated the effectiveness of education and cognitive self-regulation on academic burnout and cognitive dissonance and academic performance of elementary school girl students. The data analysis results indicate that all three research hypotheses, which was included: Learning of cognitive self-regulation strategies which causes to reduce the students' academic burnout, learning of cognitive self-regulation strategies which causes to reduce the students' cognitive dissonance and learning of cognitive self-regulation. Rezaeian, M et al provided an insight into developing a researchable question or a testable hypothesis. They provide a sensible guideline which should suit most aspects of academic, scientific, industrial and commercial research.

A number of authors considered community issues. Omraninava, M et al; evaluated the obesity rate among the children from first grade elementary schools. The authors concluded that
the overall prevalence of obesity in Sari was high, which proposes the nasality for serious consideration in the health system, and designing, developing, and implementing of preventive approaches with regard to childhood obesity. Saadat M et al; investigated the role of aerobic exercise on subjective well-being of high school female students in yasuj. The results of covariance analysis showed that aerobic exercise exercises affect mental well-being, as well as various aspects.

Soltani-Nejad S et al Tried to determine the effect of training of quality of life on self-esteem of patients with hemodialysis. Due to the effect of training on increasing self-esteem and quality of life in patients with hemodialysis, it is recommended to concern training of quality of life as part of the training program in hemodialysis units, as well as other chronic diseases benefit of such training. Saffari, L et al looked at the relationship between coaches' misconduct and the progressive motivation of elite female athletes. The components of misconduct explained the progressive motivation. Goodness of fit indices (NFI, SRMR), with their interpretation, showed that the model did not have a fairly suitable fitness and the indices should be interpreted with caution in SMART-PLS.

Ghanadi, K et al did a case-control on ulcer patients. The authors concluded that in general, peptic ulcer is considered as a common and serious problem all around the world and 5 to 10% of the population are affected by PU during their life. Therefore, the incidence and complications of this disease can be significantly prevented by correcting risk factors and lifestyle, as well as by improving the health conditions of the community. Meidani, M et al; looked at the use of quantitaive ploymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of Pneumocystis Pneumonia. The authors concluded that 12% of immunocompromised patients and 8% of non-immunocompromised were colonized by Pj which may progress to PJP or contaminate to susceptible individuals.

Emami, M et al; determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in children and adolescents that presenting for primary care to pediatric orthopedic clinic. The authors concluded that there is a high rate of subclinical vitamin D deficiency in children referred to pediatric orthopedic clinic that is more evident in 6-10 years group. Kianmehr, M et; al did a study to to evaluate the effect of MRI on vital signs of patients. The results showed that 0.35 T magnetic MRI could decrease systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate; however, it did not influence body temperature index.

Nazer, M.R et al; Carried a retrospective study to investigate the prevalence of cutaneous fungal infections among patients referred to Mycology Laboratory. The authors concluded that saprophytic infections were more common than the dermatophytoses in Sari located in Mazandaran province with hot humid climate. Tricophyton mentagrophyte is the most common species among dermatophytosis but in the other studies the commonest form were Tricophyton rubrum, Tricophyton verrucosum, Tricophyton violaceum and Epidermophyton floccosum. The differences could be due to differences in climate.

Chief Editor:
A. Abyad