Current Issue
Journal Archive
July 2022 -
Volume 20, Issue 7

View this issue in pdf format

From the Editor



Knowledge of Saudi Pregnant Women Regarding Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia
Abdulaziz Alkaabba, Salem Eid Alosaimi, Mohammed Dhafer Algarni, Mohammed Hussein Alzahrani
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525090

Patterns of Social Interaction and Lifeways which Affect Health and Healthcare of Families in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States
Seham Mansour Alyousef
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525091

A mixed-method study examining family physicians' perceptions regarding insulin pump therapy
Hammam I. Alghamdi, Khaled A. Yaghmour, Mazen A. Ismail, Weam B. AlShora
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525092

Population and Community Studies

Associations between age and types of presentation of refractive errors in children and young adults 0-30 years attending specialist referral hospital in Yemen: a cross-sectional study
Tawfik Saleh Mohammed Dhaiban, Qasem Mohammed Qasem Buhaibeh, Femina Purakaloth Ummer, Hanan Khudadad, Shajitha Thekke Veettil
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525094

Healthcare providers readiness to response to Spousal Abuse in Saudi Arabia: survey among medical and dental graduates
Eman Abbas Zaher, Wafa Romaih Alromaih, Alaa saad Alotaibi, Anwar Abdullah Almughairy, (3)
Amaal Abdullah Alqarfan, Zainab Ayesh Alheji
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525095

Knowledge and Awareness of mothers and caregivers of Diabetic Children about clinical features and complications of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Riyadh City: questionnaire study
Abdulaziz Fahad Al Kaabba, Bandar Saleh Alzuair, Yara Faisal AlHarbi, Juhainah Abdullah Alshehri, Hanan Almalki, Reeman Alsalman, Shoug Alsubaie, Reema Awad Alkhatabi,
Ghaiath Hussein
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525097

Assessing the Use of Contraceptive Methods for Family Planning among Married Women of Rawalpindi [urban]
Saira Lateef, Nimrah Komal, Mamoona Ghaffar, Kiran Zulfiqar, Shahid Minhas, Hassan Mumtaz, Muhammad Zakria, Muhammad Salman, bSaad Yousaf Sulaimani, Shaheer Elahi Khan
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525098

In Memoriam
Dr Manzoor Butt

Health Literacy of Migrant Workers in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-sectional Survey
Sami Abdulrahman Alhamidi, Seham Mansour Alyousef
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525099

Assessment of Female's Decision Regarding Family Planning and Associated Factors in Tehsil Sohawa, Punjab, Pakistan
Ali Mujtaba, Nimrah Komal, Sadiq Jan, Tahira Nasreen, Hassan Mumtaz, Khurram Shahzad
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525096

Regional Covid

The Attitude of Health Care Providers in Saudi Arabia to Covid-19 Vaccine and Implementing Preventive Measures
Hissah Naif Aldhubayban, Sarah Almuammar
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525101

What are the current COVID-19 public awareness levels and practices in Saudi Arabia? Analysis of data from an online survey conducted in 2021
Osama Albasheer, Gassem Gohal, Mohammed Somaili, Abdulrahman Yaqoub, Osama Alkhaldi, Abdullah Somaily, Hamzah Abuhadi, Abdulaziz Hakami, Alyazid Awaji, Saad Khubrani,
Ahmed Altraifi, Amani Osman Abdelmola
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525102

Physical activity levels during Covid-19 among nurses at a Saudi teaching hospital: a cross sectional study
Ranya A. Ghamri, Sofyan O. Faidah
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525104

Alexithymia and its Link to Autism
Tahani Alnashrati, Inas Alnatour, Mahmoud Aldeek
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525105

Nocturnal Enuresis
Inas Mahmoud Alnatour, Tahani Alnashrati
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525106

The diagnosis and treatment of Bell's palsy
Moustafa Abdalhade Timorkhan, Zain Zohair Safey
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525107

Maternal congenital diaphragmatic hernia complicated with left pulmonary compression in the third trimester of pregnancy
Bayan A. Zaatari, Sara A. Marzook, Rana M. Bajaba, Mohammed A. Malibary,
Abdulrahman M. Alkudsi
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2022. 9525108

Middle East Quality Improvement Program

Chief Editor -
Abdulrazak Abyad MD, MPH, MBA, AGSF, AFCHSE


Publisher -
Lesley Pocock
medi+WORLD International

Editorial Enquiries -

Advertising Enquiries -

While all efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this journal, opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of The Publishers, Editor or the Editorial Board. The publishers, Editor and Editorial Board cannot be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal; or the views and opinions expressed. Publication of any advertisements does not constitute any endorsement by the Publishers and Editors of the product advertised.

The contents of this journal are copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for purposes of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Australian Copyright Act, no part of this program may be reproduced without the permission of the publisher.







July 2022 - Volume 20, Issue 7
This issue is rich with excellent reviews, and with continuous interest in the covid situation. In addition to excellent papers on diabetes, ophthalmological problems, woman issues, cultural issues and literacy.

Al Kaabba, et al., did a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study design was conducted in Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia. A sample size of at least 412 was required. The total number of respondents that were included in the analysis was 414. The purpose of this study is to describe the knowledge of the Saudi caregivers for diabetic children about Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus, its signs and symptoms and prevention and its complications in children under their care. 399 caregivers participated in this study, most of whom were Saudi (376; 94.2%), gained university degree (300; 75.2%). The most common cited symptom of DM in children was raised blood sugar in children (225; 56.4%), while the most common cited cause was malnutrition (223; 55.9%), and the most common cited symptoms of diabetes was frequent urination (354; 88.7%). Conclusion: This study showed that most type-1 diabetic caregivers had knowledge and awareness regarding DKA in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. However, some gaps exist. Further studies would assess more factors to enhance the level of knowledge and awareness, and increase the effectiveness toward the right action and response regarding DKA. Whereas, Alghamdi, et al., did a cross-sectional study was done on PHC physicians working in primary healthcare settings to assess the level of knowledge and attitude of PHC physicians toward Insulin Pumps. There was a lack of understanding of the function of an insulin pump and the elimination of the usage of finger sticks, however most of them were aware of the different types of insulin dosages and the appropriate age group for insulin pump therapy. The authors concluded that there is a need for training programmes to increase PHC understanding and attitudes about insulin pump therapy.

In three papers woman issues were discussed. Alkaabba, et al., utilized interview-based questionnaire-based cross-sectional study design. The main aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of GDM and its implications towards the mother and fetus. The results indicated that 35.5% of the population had adequate knowledge of GDM and its implication, 34.7% did not have enough understanding of the condition, and a further 29.8% were not aware of the complication. Knowledge about GDM was found to be statistically significant only with the number of pregnancies (p=0.03). The authors concluded that Saudi pregnant women seem to have an inadequate knowledge scope of GDM and its implications to their health and those of their children. Specialized medical institutions and public health initiatives need to implement interventions to raise the awareness of the condition to help in earlier diagnosis and better management of the condition. Zaher et al., did a cross-sectional study using the Domestic Violence Health Care Provider Survey tool among medical and dental interns and residents in the Saudi Arabia to assess the readiness of them to detect, manage and prevent spousal abuse. The authors concluded that lack of teaching and training sessions on managing domestic violence during the undergraduate years shows that health care professionals are evidently underprepared and calls for an urgent need to introduce an interprofessional education curriculum that trains health care professionals of all concerned specialties at undergraduate level on managing domestic violence. Lateef et al., looked at qualitative data from a survey of married women living in urban areas of Rawalpindi are presented here in an effort to better understand their views on contraceptive techniques and the factors that impact their use. A purposeful selection strategy was used to choose participants. The prevalence of any form of contraception, including IUDs, was especially low. According to the finding. The number of young women in the United States who utilize contraception is influenced by social, demographic, and economic factors. Young women's access to contraception may be restricted unless these findings are included into public health programs. Access to family planning information and services for young women is highly recommended.

There are three covid papers in this issue Aldhubayban, & Almuammar did a cross sectional study to evaluate the willingness of the community to be vaccinated against the COVID-19 virus, assess attitude towards continuing to use protective measures after getting vaccinated, and continue to monitor changes in the spread of the COVID 19 virus after implementation of vaccination. out of 302 participants in the research.. The authors concluded that healthcare providers and co-workers are willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Still, we strongly recommend that healthcare providers need more preparation and an evidence-based approach to address the safety and efficacy of the vaccines in the community and build and maintain public trust in the vaccine. Ghamri, & Faidah did a cross sectional study was done on 316 nurses at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The aim was to look at physical activity levels during Covid -19 among nurses. The nurses in the trial had a considerably higher number of days spent doing vigorous and moderate physical activities a week before COVID-19, as well as spending more time doing them. Furthermore, they had a considerably higher percentage of days walking for at least 10 minutes at a time in a random week before to COVID-19. The authors concluded that hospital management should provide in-service education courses on healthy behaviors and physical activity to nurses in order to maintain their health and ensure higher levels of performance. Albasheer, et al., did a cross-sectional study to assess the current knowledge levels, attitudes, and practices of the Saudi Arabian population were assessed based on an online questionnaire survey. The mean knowledge score was 29.36 ± 3.80; 53.7%, 45.2%, and 1.1% of the participants had high, moderate, and low knowledge levels, respectively. The knowledge score was significantly related to the education level (p<0.001). the authors concluded that the participants exhibited a high level of public awareness in all sub-scales of knowledge, practices, and attitudes for the prevention of COVID-19. The overall knowledge levels, attitudes, and practices of the Saudi Arabian population were considerably improved since the beginning of the pandemic.

Saleh et al., did a cross-sectional study of 1,500 out-patients aged from 0-30 years attending ophthalmology clinic in Sanaa, Yemen (between 2012-2015) included in the study. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between age and types of presentation of refractive errors in children and young adults 0-30 years All patients underwent visual acuity examination, auto-refractometer, anterior and posterior segment examination, and were grouped according to age and type, i.e., myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. Odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between age and types of presentation of refractive errors. This study highlights the close associations between age and types of presentation of refractive error. Early identification and proper categorization of refractive errors by age, gender, and other demographics by general physicians in primary care can better deduce and make useful referrals to eye specialists.

Alnashrati, et al., reviewed Alexithymia and it's link to Autism. Alexithymia is common, rather than universal, with notably high rates of overlap with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The authors reviewed description of Alexithymia and its relationship to ASD. Our first aim is to provide a brief definition then focus on the relationship between ASD and alexithymia, including clarifying when and how they originate. as well as their overlap in terms of etiology and features and suggest clinically useful constructs and interventions. Alnatour & Alnashrati reviewed nocturnal enuresis, or involuntary urination, which is a common problem among children. It affects approximately 15% of all children at 5?year?old. Nocturnal enuresis decreases with age, with a spontaneous remission rate of about 15% per year. It can improve with treatment, and improved self-esteem and quality of life have been reported after successful treatment. It is therefore important to offer timely treatment, and to refer children for specialist care when treatments are not effective. The authors discussed definition, epidemiology , etiology ,evaluation and different modality of treatment for nocturnal enuresis . Timorkhan & Safey reviewed the diagnosis and treatment of Bell's palsy. Using internet search, a comprehensive literature review was done and words such as facial nerve palsy, Bell's palsy were searched. In confirmed Bell's palsy, unless contraindicated, corticosteroids should be given to all patients with Bell's palsy as early as possible (ideally within 72 h); Combination therapy with steroids and antiviral agents are recommended for patients with severe to complete paresis. Patients with incomplete eye closure should be given eye protection, with lubricating drops and ointments, to prevent corneal damage. Establishing the correct diagnosis is imperative to avoid missing another treatable condition. Determining whether the facial nerve paralysis is central or peripheral is important. The history of a Bell's palsy case should include discomfort or sensory symptoms in the distribution of the facial nerve in the hours or days preceding facial palsy, and it is very important to reveal whether the symptoms were progressive in nature.

Zaatari , et al., reported a case of Maternal congenital diaphragmatic hernia complicated with left pulmonary compression in the third trimester pregnancy. The maternal mortality due to diaphragmatic hernia is 6%. Cases are often misdiagnosed due to the nonspecific presentation and lack of experience placing pregnant women at risk. This case report discusses the presentation and management of a 17-year-old patient who had congenital diaphragmatic hernia complicated with left pulmonary compression in the third trimester pregnancy

Dr. Alyousef, used Purnell's Cultural Competency framework to focus on communication, family roles and organization, developmental tasks, social status, family dynamics, workforce issues, biocultural ecology, high-risk behavior, physical activity, nutrition, pregnancy, fertility, birth, spirituality, and death from the standpoint of healthcare delivery. The purpose of the study was looking into the absence of insight into these unique lifeways by healthcare providers may limit their caring activities. Each of the sectors discussed illuminated important ways in which Saudi and Gulf society are similar and different from the body of research related to this area. The author concluded that added perspectives which may be useful for provision of care by healthcare practitioners who are unfamiliar with some of the health related lifeways in Saudi Arabia and Gulf.

Alhamidi, & Alyousef, did a cross-sectional survey to assess the level of health literacy of migrant workers in Saudi Arabia. A convenience sample of 127 migrant workers in Saudi Arabia were surveyed using the Brief Health Literacy Screening Tool (BHLST) from September 2019 to November 2019. A comparison of the BHLST scores of the participants was performed. This study adhered to the STROBE checklist. Out of the 127 respondents, 28 reported experiencing health problems, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, back pain, hepatitis A, rheumatic disorders, allergy, headache, kidney disease, and colitis. The authors concluded that overall, the findings of the study revealed that most migrant workers had inadequate or low health literacy levels, as indicated by their BHLST scores. The health authorities in Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries need to develop health literacy interventions geared toward increasing the health literacy levels of their migrant workers.

Chief Editor
Mobile: 961-3-201901