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January 2021 -
Volume 19, Issue 1


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From the Editor

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Original contribution

Perception of Saudi Older Adults about Themselves and their Health in Makkah Region
Mohammed Abdulrahman Basheikh, Faisal I. Abosoudah, Mohammed Abdulatif Basheikh, Abdulraheem Adnan Almokhtar, Fahad A. Alzahrani, Mohammed A. Bashanfar
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93943

Depression, anxiety, stress and its determinant factors, among adult population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Fathi M. El-Gamal, Hussain M. Nadhrah, Abdulrahman A. Abdulghani, Mohammed Alasmari, Khaled S. Alomari, Abdulrahman M. Abdulghani, Abdullah Alghamdi
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93944

Awareness of the Effects of Combining Smoking and Oral Contraceptives on Cardiovascular Health among Saudi Working Women
Faisal Alzeer, Faisal Alyahya, Majed Alzharan, Mohammed AlGhamdi, Abdulaziz AlMotairi, Rakan AlQahtani, Abdulaziz H. Alzeer
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93945

Public Awareness Regarding Antihistamines and their Prescription in Primary Health Care Centres in Abha City
Majed Mohammad AL Saleh, Maram Ayed Alshahrani, Raghad Ali Alshehri, Atheer Sultan Alqurashi
[pdf]
[Abstract]

DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93946

Impact of Using Social Media on Mental Health among University Medical Students in Abha City, Southern Saudi Arabia
Afnan Mastour Alammar, Safar Abadi Al Saleem, Abdulaziz Mohammad Al-Garni, Razan Saeed Alalammar, Razan suliman alhumayed
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93947

Assessment of quality of life among medical interns in Saudi Arabia
Lotfi F. Issa, Mohammed M. Alattas, Hassan A. Alshamrani, Abdulrahman H. Alhazmi, Wedd Khalid Alharthi
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93948

Impact of age on the clinical aspects and management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, among adults in Saudi Arabia
Fathi M. El-Gamal, Saleh Alturkistani, Anmar Alkindy, Ahmed Abdulqader, Ali Alnashri, Abeer Alnashri
[pdf]
[Abstract]

DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93949

The Effect of obesity stigma on obese people, Saudi Arabia, 2020
Rehab Alenazy, Abdullah Almutairi
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93950

The Association between Short Inter-Pregnancy Interval and Postmenopausal Osteoporosis, Saudi Arabia, Taif City, 2019: A case-control study
Ameerah S. Bajaber, Hashem Bukhary, Afnan K. Sibyani, Eid H. Alshahrani, Tasneem H. Hassan, Nojood A. Althomali
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93951

The effect of BMI and glycemic control on S. potassium and S. calcium Disturbances among Diabetic Patients in Salah Al-Deen General Hospital
Mohammed Khalil Ibraheem, Zaidan Jayed Zaidan
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93952

The effect of diabetic control on serum sodium disturbances in Salah Al-Deen general hospital
Mohammed Khalil Ibraheem, Zaidan Jayed Zaidan
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93953

Are Pakistani mothers aware of the Child Safety Measures? A Cross sectional study

Tabinda Ashfaq, Aiesha Ishaq, Faisal Shahzad, Muhammad Abu Bakar, Fahad Saleem
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93954

Becker nevi among patients in Aden, Yemen
Asia Hassan Abdulla Saleh, Amer Omer Bin Al-Zou, Lina Ali Muthanna
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93955

Novel COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Global Health Care Providers
Nazish Jaffar, Amna Khan, Kiran Abbas, Aliya Jafri, Sarmad Jamal Siddiqui, Vinita Kumari
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93956

Does measles immunization lead to immunization for COVID-19? Case series
Mehmet Husamettin Akkucuk, Nalan Akalin, Betul Gulalp
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93957

To What Extent Are Medical Students Benefiting From Mentoring
Saeed Saleh Alqahtani, Awad Saeed Al-Samghan, Abdulaziz Saad Alshahrani, Yassir Edrees Almalki, Eisa Yazeed Ghazwani, Mohammed Amanullah, Ayed A. Shati
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93958

Burnout among Turkish Physicians: A Systematic Review
Aydin Toktamis, M. Hüsamettin Akküçük
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93959

Islamic Religion and Psychoanalysis: An Overview
Saleha Al-Jadidi
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93960

Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Management in Primary Care - To treat or not to treat?
Sanjeewa Sumathipala
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93962


Hip Position during Common Lower Limb Rehabilitation Exercises Effects Gluteal Electromyographic Activity: A Systematic Review
Maha H. Alnaemi, Hanaa I. Alkuwari, Sahar S. Almarri, Sherlyn Myka S. Balista
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93964

Knowledge, attitude and practice of diabetic retinopathy care and prevention among diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia: a systematic review
Abdullah S. Alqahtani, Hams A. AlamriAlmoayad M. Makrami, Faizah S. Alyahyawi, Ayah A. Aloufi, Awatef A. Alnami, Atyaf A. Bakri, Fatimah A.Al- Zaher, Fatimah A. Busayli, Rihanah F. ALshahrani
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93965

Original Research

Prevalence of Low Back Pain and Its Associated Risk Factors among Female Nurses Working in a tertiary hospital in Dhahran , Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
Rasha H. Alziyadi, Mohamed H. Elgezery, Reham H. Alziyadi
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93967

Nutritional supplements and hormonal use among Gym exercisers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia
Fathi M. El-Gamal , AbdulKareem S. Fatani, Mohammed M. Mubarak, Zain H. Khan, Sahal A. Alardhawy, Abdullah M. Alqahtani
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93968

Prevalence and prognosis of ABO blood groups among COVID-19 patients at KAUH, Jeddah
Mawaddah F. Batwa, Wafa M. Alghamdi, Ghada T. Kersh, Fatima A. Algethmi, Ebtihaj A. Al-Amoudi, Mona A. Alfares
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93969

Prevalence, risk factors, and types of urinary incontinence among females: A cross sectional study
Amena Ali, Nouf Abdullah Saleh Almasabi, Shrooq Thaiban Alkhaldi, Amaal Mastour Altowairqi, Sahar Rajaallah Aljumayi, Ahmed Salah Eldalo, Abuzer Ali
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93970

Knowledge and Awareness of Parents about pediatric obstructive sleep apnea in KSA, cross-section study, 2019
Amna F. Bashir, Ahmed Al-Ghamdi, Atheer Saleh Alsaadi, Bashaier G. AlQahtani, Suzan Awad Alshihri, Hanan A. Alshahrani, Haif Fahad Alshareef
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93971

Risk factors for hypothyroidism in Saudi Arabia
Mohammad Eid M. Mahfouz Renad A. Altowairqi, Raghad N. Alfeer, Elaf K. Alghamdi, Ghaida M. Alnofaei , Reham H. Alziyadi
[pdf]
[Abstract]
DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93972



Middle East Quality Improvement Program
(MEQUIP QI&CPD)

Chief Editor -
Abdulrazak Abyad MD, MPH, MBA, AGSF, AFCHSE

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Publisher -
Lesley Pocock
medi+WORLD International
AUSTRALIA
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: lesleypocock@mediworld.com.au
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The contents of this journal are copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for purposes of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Australian Copyright Act, no part of this program may be reproduced without the permission of the publisher.

January 2021 - Volume 19, Issue 1

Nutritional supplements and hormonal use among Gym exercisers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia

(1) Professor and chairman of Family Medicine Department, Ibn Sina National College for medical studies, Jeddah, KSA
(2) Medicine program, Ibn Sina National College, Jeddah, KSA

Corresponding author:
Prof. Fathi M. El-Gamal, Department of Family Medicine,
Ibn Sina National College. Al Mahjer Street. Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Tel: 6356555-6355882 / Fax: 6375344 – P.O. Box 31906 Jeddah 21418
Email: drfathimhelgamal1996@hotmail.com

Received: November 2020; Accepted: December 2020; Published: January 1, 2021. Citation: Fathi M. El-Gamal et al. Nutritional supplements and hormonal use among Gym exercisers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. World Family Medicine. 2020; 19(1): 183-192 DOI: 10.5742/MEWFM.2021.93968

Abstract

Background: There is a recent increase in popularity and demands of nutritional supplements and hormonal use among men and women gym exercisers; and their accompanying adverse effects are evident in the literature.

Objectives: To study the pattern and determinants of use of nutritional supplements among recreational gym exercisers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: It was a cross-sectional study which was conducted online using Google form. It was a non-probability convenient sample of 260 gym exercisers. Data was collected using a questionnaire which provided information on the socio-demographic characteristics, aspects of sport practiced, intake of nutritional supplements, as well as on the awareness of the side effects of hormones use. SPSS version 23 was used; Chi square, and Multi-nominal logistic regression tests of significance, were used; and the Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were calculated. The level of significance was 0.05.

Results: Nutritional supplements were used by 59.1% of the Gym exercisers. About 82% got them without advice from health care personnel; coaches were counselled on the type of nutritional supplement in 20% of the cases. They were used mainly to build muscles (52.6%), improve performance (22.2%), or to reduce weight (16.3%). Carbohydrate rich diet, weight gain supplements and fat burning supplements were the most frequently used types. Older age group exercisers were significantly more likely to use nutritional supplements (B= - 0.058). The males were 2.99 times more likely to consume nutritional supplements compared to the females (OR= 2.985; 95% CI 1.575, 5.660). The smokers were 3.541 times more likely to consume nutritional supplements compared to the nonsmokers (OR= 3.541; 95% CI 1.713, 7.313). The subjects with total period of training of more than 12 months, were significantly more likely to consume nutritional supplements compared to those with total period of 1 – 6 months (OR= 0.413; 95% CI 0.202, 0.845, p < 0.016), or of 7-12 months (OR= 0.308; 95% CI 0.126, 0.775, p < 0.016). The subjects with total period of training per day of more than 2 hours, were significantly more likely to consume nutritional supplements compared to those with total period of less than 1 hour per day (OR= 0.045; 95% CI 0.004, 0.845, p < 0.570, p < 0.017), and of 1 - 2 hours per day (OR= 0.083; 95% CI 0.007, 0.997, p < 0.050).

Conclusion: Use of nutritional supplements is common among the exercisers in Saudi Arabia, but mainly without medical supervision. Health education programs are needed to educate the exercisers on the potential harmful effects of supplements, if taken without medical advice and supervision. Educating gym employees may have a positive influence on the use of supplements and hormones.

Key words: Nutritional supplements, Saudi Arabia, gym exercisers







 


 

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