The Status of women in Baluchi
Habib Jadid-ol-eslami Ghale no (2)
(1) Ph.D. Student of Faculty of Persian Literature
and Human Sciences, Zahedan Branch, Islamic
Azad University, Zahedan, Iran
(2) Ph.D. of Literature, Faculty of Persian
Literature and Human Sciences, Zahedan Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran
Habib Jadid-ol-eslami ghale
Ph.D. of Literature, Faculty of Persian Literature
and Human Sciences,
Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Received: April 2019; Accepted: May 2019;
Published: June 1, 2019. Citation: Abdolsamad
Hamidi far, Habib Jadid-ol-eslami ghale. The
Status of women in Baluchi epics. World Family
Medicine. 2019; 17(6): 37-41. DOI: 10.5742MEWFM.2019.93659
formation of the most famous Baluch epics
like Bnaly and Dehli conquer,
Rend and Lashar, Kambar,
balac, Lall, and
Adinag are on the basis of
the ethnic and regional values and maintaining
these values has led to devastating and
debilitating wars between nations and
women in these epics have always had an
essential role as agent or stimulus.
status of women in each of these epics,
which are especially popular, has been
analyzed. The aim of the author of this
study was introducing Baluchi literature
and culture and also, the most famous
women in the Baluchi epics for researchers
and lovers of literature of Baluch.
have been written about verse literature
of Baluch but no significant work has
been written independently in the field
of Baluchi womens epics recognition.
Certainly, this is the first independent
study of this field and the author, in
this paper, focuses on the compilation
using literary review method.
Key words: Epic, Baluch, Woman,
Bnaly, Gawhar, the mother of Kambar
Epic, is the adjectival form of poems
that (are) based on describing the ethnic or
individual heroic and masculine actions which
include various aspects of their lives
(Safa 1378: 24).
Epic, history and romance poetry have been
quoted for centuries from generations from the
farthest parts of Baluchistan, despite the extent
of the territory and today have come to the
Baluchi epic poetry like other
epic poems in the world is a mix of combat and
feasting. Epic battles, praise of heroes, Cites
, ethnic beliefs, different battles, migrations
and the Baluchis wars with foreigners
are the topics of these poems (Baluch,
Poetry, which is called Shaire
in Baluch, is the song which is the theme of
the epic or romance stories, historical and
social events, information etc.
The poet is the person who runs the Shaire,
with an instrument and singing which is also
called Pahlavan (1).
Phlavan is a combination of two words Pahlaw
and Van. Pahlaw is derived from
the root of Pahlavi language and means brave,
brave and powerful and Van means singer.
Vanag in Baluchi is the meaning
of singing so Pahlavn can be interpreted as
singer, courage and heroism provider. Baluchi
Pahlavan not only presents the historical realities
of Baluchistan and maintains them for other
generations, but can change the course of historical
events (Masoudie, 1364:9).
The most important Baluchi poem collections
1- Epic collections: Rend and Lashar,
Mir kambar, Salr and shahsavr, and Hammal.
2- Historical collections: Dadshah.
3- Romantic collections: Ezzat and Mayrok,
aymorid and Hani, Jalal khan, Sassy and
Ponno, Shirin and Dosten, Shahdad and Mahnaz,
and Samanbar and Heidar.
Because of the diversity of ethnic, geographic,
climate, governmental, economic and cultural
aspects, different parts of Baluchistan have
various accents, proverbs and stories of their
own which are for the sake of living, the government,
and other factors of life.
The background of Baluchi literature research
is recognised by the recent centuries, firstly
for foreign researchers. The most famous of
them was M. Longworth dreams .
In addition to foreign scholars, Baluch researchers
in Baluchistan of Pakistan such as Seyed Zohour
Hashemi, Faghir shad, Golkhn Nasir, and Karim
Dashty are presented. Baluch researchers in
Baluchistan of Iran have also partly completed
research in the field of literature and culture
of Baluch. Though researchers of Baluchisatn
in Pakistn were more fortunate because they
had accessto more resources and published works.
From Baluch researchers of Irans Baluchistan
we can refer to Mousa Mahmoud Zahi the author
of Celebrities of Baluchistan, Beliefs,
regulations and culture of Baluchistn,
The art of Baluchistan and Abdolhossein
Yadegari, the author of Baluch people
epics, Azim Shahbakhsh the author of the
story of Dadshah, in research of Contemporary
History of Baluchistan, Abdolsamad Hamidifar
the author of a master thesis entitled Morphology
of aymorid and Hani and Manuscript
collections of Shaikh and Rendan and Hani,
by Abdolvhed Borhani.
But no significant independent research has
been written on the recognition of the epic
women and their status.
Epics that have been proposed in this paper,
are recorded as a poem in the book Miras
Faghir Shad, and these stories are common orally
with different versions among the Baluch people.
Baluchi glossary by Sayed Zohor shah hashemi
is used in most cases to translate the vocabularies.
Many of the poets of the poems are unknown and
the stories are ancient, about Irans Safavids
era. In some parts of the paper, Baluchi poetry
is mentioned with transliteration and translation,
for example are Taken from the book Epic
in Baluchistan by Abdulghafour Jahndideh.
Literary review method was used.
The author has tried to analyze a number of
women who have a role in the epics of the Baluch
like Banaly and Delhi conquer, Rend
and Lashar, Kambar, balac,
Lalla and Adinag and
their roles as an agent or stimulus.
Baluch epic is about womens destiny which
has made Baluch history. Many of these women
are representative of the society and culture
where the woman is not just lowly , but sometimes
even higher than mens status and obviously
such a woman is raised from Baluchistan.
Women in Baluch culture are respected as a
taboo, and an affront to their character is
not an offense that can easily be devoid of
It seems that some of the womens freedom
and power and exceptional bravery in Baluchi
poems demonstrate respect and dignity of women
among people who have promoted the narratives
and stories. In these poems the most prominent
women are from big families and large ethnic
groups. These epic characters are unique and
Women also have a special place in one of the
most prestigious Baluch Alliances and her portrayal
is that of a refuge . For someone who wants
to be free of oppression and puts themself under
the protection of another powerful person, it
is sufficient to say: Im Mayr
of your wifes wearing (hijab) and
then that person supports and protects him forever.
The anonymity of the Baluchi language and literature
in Iran and the lack of resources required the
writing of this article to be partly analytical.
Banaly and Delhi conquer epic
Banaly or Bnary compared to the rest of Baluch
women has more courage and bravery and she was
manifest as the perfect woman.
Banaly is cakars sister and mirns
mother, and wears combat clothes and participates
alongside Baluch men in a war called Dehli
In Dehli war, about one hundred and thirty
thousand men of Baluch including ca kar»
and «Miran were present. Gwahram,
is made aware of the King of Delhi and says:
ah tayar baw lakar o pawga .....................That
the Shah (king), with your army (be) alert [to
The Shah of Delhi was fully prepared to fight
with the Baluch people. Baluch people had a
fierce battle with Delhis King. kar was
ordered to retreat hobson either by policy ,
however, midway noticed that Banaly and some
of the riders were absent. Given Mirans
long-standing hatred of Delhis Shah, he
returned to the palace. He found Bnaly and Shah
fighting. Mirn shouts angrily at Shah: the
one who fights with you is a woman. Shah
says to Banaly:
So youre a woman, get out of the
Banaly responded to King:
Ag gann yn tai gan e hazmn .......... if Im
a woman, Im not like other women, and
I am even better than your wife.
Gan ham gant ke mtagn nendant .......Woman
would say to someone who sits at home.
Panno mozwko mahparn randant
Gn wati mardn dazgol? ant
Women are made for their husbands.
Man ganna pa magles a nayln.....................
I dont like such woman and I wont
accompany them. (pages 279-280)
Banaly, who was a skilled fencer, with her
son Mirn, prevailed on the Shah of Dehli.
Banalys persistence and courage caused
a Baluch victory in the war with the King of
Dehli. Bnalys warfare, reminds us how
Gord was afraid to fight against Sohrab in Shahnameh.
Although in this the war, there were many Baluch
tribes and also great commanders such as cakar.
But this epic with Banalys name became
well known and her name now has a deep root
in the ancient culture of Baluch.
Epic of Rend and Lashar
Gawhar, Radows daughter was a widow with
abundant wealth. The remnant poetry contains
this upbeat passage that after the returning
of Lashrs army from the Delhi battle,
gwahram the Lashari and the Nohni commander
remembers that no tax from Gawhar, a wealthy
woman who sponsored him, was not received. He
sends some persons of Lashri and Nohni tribes
to Gawhar in order to talk and collect taxes.
When Gawhar hears the words of the messenger
of gwahram she answers that: If God has
endowed me wealth, Gwahram must not to be greedy
about that. Is he teased me because I live on
his estate? If it is so, I cannot leave here
and go elsewhere.
After hearing her taunts Gwahrms special
messenger arises without objection but Nohnis
was not satisfied and did not leave; they gave
away the properties inside the tents and thenleft.
After that, Gawhar moved from there without
delay and goes to the kar and tells him:
Gwar taw atkagn bhti for protection,.........
I come to you
ihn o ber gangh ......................consider
a place for me and prepare it now (p 171)
Gwahram found that Gawhar moved and sent some
of his men to bring her back to kaar. They attacked
her camp and looted all her assets. They even
killed her cattle and camels and returned to
This blatant violation of the privacy of a
woman, who was a refugee of a proud man like
kar, obviously started the Thirty Years
War between Rand and Lashar.
Gwahram, who attacked nightly and was lucky
to get away, was ready to stand against a wounded
leopard of Rend. But cakar had seen the cowardly
betrayal of Gwahram and mindless and with the
onslaught of emotions, only with a number of
troops and weapons left to pursue the attackers.
Gwahram with forethought deployed his corps
and waited forca kars army. The corps
was defeated in the war and lost one of their
skilled fighters (mirn. In the later war, the
twenty-fifth war. Gwahram went to Send
in order to provide crops and hired warriors
from Samme and Botto
tribes. kar went to Herats King Arghun
for help. He won in the final battle.
Gawhar was the main cause of the ruinous war
between Gwahrm and cakar.
This invasion of Gawhars privacy was
in fact an invasion to kars, and he felt
Epic of Kambar
A large army led by Mehrb, Osman and Mazar from
the East of Baluchistan on the pretext of getting
taxes moved to the south and in any area where
they arrived, looted their properties and captured
men, girls and women. This army arrived in Malrn,
Bent and Dahn. The herds of the Maloran were
looted and killed; also many men and women were
captured. One of the soldiers went to Bent and
let Kambar know this. Kambar was upset to hear
this because he was the guardian of property
and dignity of the people and people were protected
Kambar firstly went to his mother and said:
Mati mani mat mkkahen.......................
Mother, my dear mother;
Hakakn pahel kan ke rawan .................forgive
me, now Im going (page 557)
The mother of Kambar answers:
ir et pahell ent bac mani ...................
I forgive you my son
Man pa tai rodenag o Baz ka etag
gawr o gapa ........................
Ive suffered so much for your growing
Then she continues:
When you go to war and release captives, and
return triumphant, then friends, will talk about
your masculine fighting. If you were killed,
even if I was old I will be young and sing the
song of happiness. Your body will go to the
cemetery with lyrics and song, Ill rejoice
sennight , and Ill remarry and will breed
another child instead of you. Mir kambar said
good bye to his mother and called his wife.
His wife came out with ornaments and makeup
and told him: We are newlywed; its just
a week we are married. Kambar gave her three
Gold coins and said: dear wife, this is your
divorce and Mehrieh, you have now freedom to
remarry because I might get killed in war.
Kambar went to battle with his army; many of
the looters were killed in this war and all
the prisoners were released, but Kambar was
killed. His mother buried his body with happiness.
Kambars mother was the only one who encouraged
Kambar to go to war. She was a brave woman for
whom name and shame was more important than
all else, for her although the name and shame
was at the expense of losing her son. Her courage
reminds us of the mother of Hasanak Vazir
in Beyhaghi history or perhaps Golmohammads
mother in Kelidars novel by
Dolat bdi , perhaps above them.
Epic of balac
Sammi was a Wealthy widow and lived in Dd neighborhood.
Someone called Bibagr who was one
of the rulers, attacked her house and plundered
all her property including the cattle herd.
Sammi brings the news to Lalen (Dodas
Lalen goes immediately to the Dodas house
a mard ke mayaran gall ant .......................The
man who takes refuge
n Nemro n a nawapsant kollan......................
Do not sleep in the middle of the day in a room
Dost o arsarn granmollan ......................with
his beautiful wife
Doda, hearing taunts of his mother Lalen, arises,
and prepared to return the cattle of Sammi.
First he divorced his wife so that he was not
her dependent on the battlefield or if he was
killed in the war; his wife wasnt a widow
and could marry another man.
Lalen encourages her son to fight with enemies
Nazen et mani bacig a ............................Praise
Bacci ca dowa yakke kant .......................My
son will do one of two things:
Hayi cotawan bazen it ................or
loses his precious hair (will be killed)
Gokan sargamig a karit .................. or
all the cows, [those looted] will be returned.
Doda moves with his comrades and with his little
brother Bl who at that time was very young following
him, but Doda stopped him. Doda said:
You stay at home, if we die, take revenge on
Balac returns home. In the Garmap
area Doda arrives at Bibagrs crops. Bibagr,
who was ambushed, attacked Dds army and
killed him and his colleagues in a hard battle.
Their blood will not be overwhelmed. Balac
and Nakibou became allies to take his revenge.
Years, Balac was lurking with Bibagr. Until
one day he sees Bibagr from afar and kills him
Sammi is the main cause of this war. Bibagr
had unfairly invaded her privacy and it was
in fact invading Dodas because Sammi was
his refugee. Lalen is aware of refuging. She
ordered Doda to take back Sammis looted
properties. Lln even encouraged Balac to revenge.
She reminds us of the mother of Kambar.
Epic of Lalla
Granaz was Lallas wife and Mirbarans
daughter. Mirbaran who was Chieftain with his
sons and son in law (Lalla) went to battlefield.
Mirbaran and his sons and brothers were killed
in war and Lalla was severely injured and one
of his comrades was taken out of the arena.
Others reported his survival to his wife, in
other words: He fled from the battlefield.
Granaz who lost her father, brothers and uncles
became very angry and messaged to her husband:
I wish I heard your death news instead
of your escape. Then I spoke with pride about
you and praised your courage .
Granaz didnt welcome him at home and
Lal awent to his mothers house to have
his wounds treated. He answered his wife: Ive
not escaped from war, I am hurt and my companion
brought me out of the field, When my wounds
are treated Ill return to the battlefield
to take revenge.
Finally he recovered and took revenge and went
Granaz in this war encouraged her husband to
fight, with sarcasm and she wished if her wife
died or took revenge.
Epic of Adinag
One day, kar ku lovahi and his men
passedby. Along the way, they saw Ali
ride slowly, a female animal. One of the Cakars
men called him and said: Ride faster. Ali answered:
The animal is incapable and cannot go fast.
The man said ridiculously and impolitely: then
you have to mate with her to cure her disability.
li became angry and answered: do it with kars
mother because she is a strumpet.
Cakars men took li and tied his hands
and legs like animals and put grass out for
him. When they arrived home he said to his daughter:
we tied an old man in the pampas, go and take
care of his food and water. Fatimah guessed
that old man was her father.
She asked her husband (Adam) immediately to
go that place. He found li but Ali didnt
want to come back home and said: how do I return
home while people tease me? Adam answered: my
uncle I promise to revenge otherwise Ill
never go to bed with my wife.A dinag, an old
son of Ali said: I promise to revenge otherwise
Ill never speak to anyone. Wadi,
the other son of li said Ill never take
my shoes off until I have revenge.
After these covenants one day early Adam was
washing his body, people saw him and gossiped
that Adam was not committed to his promise.
He went to bed with his wife last night and
took ritual in the morning. Of course, people
either did not know or pretended to ignore that
Adam was washed because of his autoerotism during
the night. Rumors reached Fatimah and made her
angry .she said then:
Ali tai caran bac mabiten ant, ...................
Ali I wish you had not four children
Ali tai caren bac gann etan, .....................
AliI wish your sons were born daughters
Datagen zamat et daren ean ................and
your son in law wasnt in your family and
then you werent teased. Adam answered:
You know that I have not broken the covenant.
Fatimah said: Why you do not take revenge?
Fatimahs words made her husband more
Adam attacked Cakars palace with Alis
sons. Cakar was lucky in this war. Some of Alis
men were killed. Adinag, Alis older son
ordered retreat. Later in another opportunity
Cakar who was moving to his farm, was killed
In this war Fatimahs sarcasm causes Adam
to be more determined to take revenge.