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November 2017 -
Volume 15, Issue 9

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Original contribution/Clinical Investigation
Diabetes Mellitus - Knowledge, Management and Complications: Survey report from Faisalabad-Pakistan
Ijaz Anwer, Ahmad Shahzad, Kashmira Nanji, Farah Haider, Muhammad Masood Ahmad

Alanine aminotransferase indicates excess weight and dyslipidemia
Mehmet Rami Helvaci, Orhan Ayyildiz* Mustafa Cem Algin, Yusuf Aydin, Abdulrazak Abyad, Lesley Pocock

Comparative Analysis of Antimicrobial Peptides Gene Expression in Susceptible/Resistant Mice Macrophages to Leishmania major Infection

Hamid Daneshvar, Iraj Sharifi, Alireza Kyhani, Amir Tavakoli Kareshk, Arash Asadi

Does socio-economic status of the patients have effect on clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery?
Forough Razmjooei, Afshin Mansourian, Saeed Kouhpyma

Comparison of the uterine artery Doppler indices during pregnancy between gestational diabetes and diabetes mellitus and healthy pregnant women
Nazanin Farshchian, Farhad Naleini, Amir Masoud Jaafarnejhad,
Parisa Bahrami Kamangar

Survey single dose Gentamicin in treatment of UTI in children with range of 1 month to 13 years old in Jahrom during 2015
Ehsan Rahmanian, Farideh Mogharab,
Vahid Mogharab

Evaluation of control of bleeding by electro cauterization of bleeding points of amplatz sheath tract after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in Jahrom Peymanieh hospital during year 2015-2016
Ali Reza Yousefi , Reza Inaloo

Comparison of the three-finger tracheal palpation technique with triple ID formula to determine endotracheal tube depth in children 2-8 years in 2016-2017
Anahid Maleki, Alireza Ebrahim Soltani, Alireza Takzare, Ebrahim Espahbodi,
Mehrdad Goodarzi , Roya Noori

Effect of Sevoflurane and Propofol on pulmonary arterial pressure during cardiac catheterization in children with congenital heart diseases
Faranak Behnaz, Mahshid Ghasemi , Gholamreza Mohseni, Azim Zaraki
Population and Community Studies

Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children aged 2-12 years in the Abu Dhabi Islands
Eideh Al-Shehhi, Hessa Al-Dhefairi, Kholoud Abuasi, Noora Al Ali, Mona Al Tunaiji, Ebtihal Darwish

Study and comparison of psychological disorders in normal students and students with multiple sclerosis in Shahrekord
Neda Ardestani-Samani, Mohammad Rabiei, Mohammad Ghasemi-Pirbalooti, Asghar Bayati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani

Comparative study of self-concept, physical self-concept, and time perspective between the students with multiple sclerosis and healthy students in Shahrekord
Neda Ardestani-Samani, Mohammad Rabiei, Mohammad Ghasemi-Pirbalooti, Asghar Bayati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani

Relationship between Coping Styles and Religious Orientation with Mental Health in the Students of the Nursing-Midwifery Faculty of Zabol
Nasim Dastras, Mohsen Heidari Mokarrar, Majid Dastras, Shirzad Arianmehr

Tuberculosis in Abadan, Iran (2012-2016): An Epidemiological Study
Ali-Asghar ValiPour, Azimeh Karimyan, Mahmood Banarimehr, Marzieh Ghassemi, Maryam Robeyhavi, Rahil Hojjati,
Parvin Gholizadeh

Family Stability and Conflict of Spiritual Beliefs and Superstitions among Yazdi People in Iran: A Qualitative Study
Zahra Pourmovahed , Seyed Saied Mazloomy Mahmoodabad ; Hassan Zareei Mahmoodabadi ; Hossein Tavangar ; Seyed Mojtaba Yassini Ardekani ; Ali Akbar Vaezi

A comparative study of the self-actualization in psychology and Islam
Simin Afrasibi, Zakieh Fattahi

The effectiveness of cognitive - behavioral therapy in reducing the post-traumatic stress symptoms in male students survivors of earthquake in the central district of Varzeghan
Sakineh Salamat, Dr.Ahad Ahangar, Robab Farajzadeh


Effects and mechanisms of medicinal plants on stress hormone (cortisol): A systematic review
Kamal Solati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani, Lesley Pocock

Comparing Traditional and medical treatments for constipation : A Review Article
Mohammad Yaqub Rajput

A review of anti-measles and anti-rubella antibodies in 15- 25 year old women in Jahrom City in 2011
Ehsan Rahmania , Farideh Mogharab, Vahid Mogharab

Review of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children below 12 years old in Jahrom hospital, during 2010-2014
Ali Reza Yousefi , Reza Inaloo

Physical and mental health in Islam
Bahador Mehraki, Abdollah Gholami

International Health Affairs

The Challenges of Implementation of Professional Ethics Standards in Clinical Care from the viewpoint of Nursing Students and Nurses
Saeedeh Elhami, Kambiz Saberi, Maryam Ban, Sajedeh Mousaviasl, Nasim Hatefi Moadab, Marzieh Ghassemi

Cognitive Determinants of Physical Activity Intention among Iranian Nurses: An Application of Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction
Arsalan Ghaderi, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Behzad Mahaki, Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh,
Yadolah Zarezadeh , Erfan Sadeghi

Effect of resilience-based intervention on occupational stress among nurses
Hossein Jafarizadeh, Ebrahim Zhiyani, Nader Aghakhani, Vahid Alinejad, Yaser Moradi

Education and Training

Calculation of Salaries and Benefits of Faculty Members in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran
Abdolreza Gilavand

The effect of education on self-care behaviors of gastrointestinal side effects on patients undergoing chemotherapy
Shokoh Varaei, Ehsan Abadi Pishe, Shadan Pedram Razie, Lila Nezam Abadi Farahani

Creating and Validating the Faith Inventory for Students at Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz
Solmaz Choheili, Reza Pasha, Gholam Hossein Maktabi, Ehsan Moheb

Creating and Validating the Adjustment Inventory for the Students of Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz
Homa Choheili, Reza Pasha, Gholam Hossein Maktabi, Ehsan Moheb

Evaluating the Quality of Educational Services from the Viewpoints of Radiology Students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
Abdolreza Gilavand, Jafar Fatahiasl

An Investigation of Psychosocial aspect of Iranian Nursing Students' Clinical Setting
Mahsa Boozaripour , Zanyar Karimi, Sima Zohari Anbohi, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Fariba Borhani

Clinical Research and Methods

Comparison of the Antibacterial Effects of Chlorhexidine Mouth washes with Jaftex Mouth wash on Some Common Oral Microorganisms (An in Vitro Study)
Ebrahim Babadi, Zahra Bamzadeh, Fatemeh Babadi

Study of the effect of plasma jet on Fusarium isolates with ability to produce DON toxins
Elham Galin Abbasian, Mansour Bayat, Arash chaichi Nosrati, Seyed Jamal Hashemi, Mahmood Ghoranneviss

The comparison of anti-inflammatory effect in two methods of topical dexamethasone injection and topical application of ginger alcoholic extract after removing mandibular wisdom teeth
Sahar Zandi, Seyyed Muhammadreza Alavi, Kamran Mirzaie, Ramin Seyedian, Narges Aria, Saman Jokar

The effect of curcumin on growth and adherence of major microorganisms causing tooth decay
Leila Helalat, Ahmad Zarejavid, Alireza Ekrami, Mohammd Hosein Haghighizadeh, Mehdi Shiri Nasab

Middle East Quality Improvement Program

Chief Editor -
Abdulrazak Abyad MD, MPH, MBA, AGSF, AFCHSE


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November 2017 - Volume 15, Issue 9

Comparing traditional and medical treatments for constipation : A Review Article

Mohammad Yaqub Rajput

Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Corresponding author:
Mohammad Yaqub Rajput,
Assistant professor of internal medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Jahrom University of Medical Sciences,
Jahrom, Iran
Tel: +989171912400



Constipation is one of the complaints raised by various age groups. More than one-seventh of the adult population in the world are suffering from chronic constipation. In addition to adverse effects on lifestyle and physical complications, this disease costs a lot to the patient and the health system. In this study, the recommendations for the removal of constipation from traditional medicine and modern medicine were extracted and compared. The general approach to dealing with constipation in traditional medicine sources is somewhat similar to that of the medical findings, but the details of the recommendations in these sources do not have the required level of evidence. Also, the importance of paying attention to constipation has been emphasized in reducing the number of complications in traditional medicine sources, which deserves further consideration.

Key words: constipation, traditional medicine, modern medicine, laxative


Constipation is one of the most common complications of the digestive tract in modern and traditional medicine. Constipation is one of the complaints raised by various age groups. (1) More than one-seventh of the adult population in the world are suffering from chronic constipation (2 and 3). Chronic constipation with a prevalence of 15-30% in adults and between 3% and 28% in children is one of the priorities of the World Health Organization (1, 4-6). In addition to the negative effects it affects the patient and the health system on lifestyle and physical side effects. Constipation, in addition to being unpleasant, can be associated with complications such as mega colon, general weakness, hemorrhoids, and sustained complications such as pudendal nerve damage and impaired pelvic floor muscle function due to excessive pressure for excision and even uteroinjection prolapse (5, 7). Studies have shown that women with severe constipation are more likely to be exposed to gynecologic surgery (5). The high prevalence of constipation in all age groups, the imposition of financial burdens on health care systems at $ 7,522 per year for each patient in the United States, the impact on quality of life of people and the lack of satisfaction with current drugs, the tendency of patients and researchers to use other methods, including herbal remedies and explain other methods of complementary and alternative medicine (8 and 9).

In this study, the recommendations for the removal of constipation from traditional medicine sources and traditional medicine databases were extracted and compared.

Definition of constipation in modern medicine: severe stool discharging or incomplete emptying after bowel movements or bowel movements less than three times a week (10)

Definition of Constipation in Traditional Medicine:
In traditional medicine, constipation is characterized by titles such as hasr, abdominal cavity and ventricular vein, and colic is a specific type of constipation associated with pain (11).

Constipation Therapy in Modern Medicine: In modern medicine, constipation is initiated by providing non-pharmacological advice such as increasing physical activity and fluid intake, regulating bowel habits, and increasing fiber consumption. If necessary, laxative drugs are prescribed, and in the absence of response, Surgical methods are used. (12 and 13) In new studies, laxatives are classified into five groups based on their mechanism of action (4, 5 and 14)

The treatment of constipation in traditional medicine: The first step in the treatment of traditional medicine in Iran is the diagnosis of the disease pattern. Considering the characteristics of stool in terms of consistency, shape, color, smell and accompanying symptoms, along with the examination of language and pulse, is one of the important issues of this school. The principles of treatment in Iranian medicine are based on lifestyle modification and nutrition, the establishment of the balance and the strengthening of the organ. Several studies have shown the effectiveness of some Iranian herbs on constipation. Hypnosis (ENMA) is also indicated as an effective treatment for constipation (15) Dr. Ahmadieh writes in the secret of treatment that “It should be noted that most diseases cause disruption of the stomach and laziness of the intestine. In addition, each illness also causes forms of digestive system impairment. He cleared it and launched it, then, as if he returned to a permanent illness, he went to special treatment.” He says elsewhere: “The predecessors of treating illnesses, emptying the intestines and treating the diseases were important, and they insisted on doing so, and putting the rest of the treatments at a later stage. I also chose the same procedure, because of constipation and digestive disorders The cause of any illness or partner is the disease “(16)
Treatment for constipation is primarily focused on removing constipation-inducing substances such as consuming dry foods or opiates, and continues to focus on treating constipation-related gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal malformations.

Food Recommendations in Traditional Medicine:
- Avoid consuming dessert foods (17) and grilled and fried foods (18)
- Avoid flaccid foods (17) such as legumes, apples, cucumbers, yogurt (18)
- Increased meals: Increasing the number of meals in addition to reducing complications, such as reflux, also affects the lining of the heart; however, the volume of the serving should be reduced proportionately with the increase in the number of snacks (19 and 20)
- Having a regular diet (16 and 17)
- The use of soft and early digested foods (17, 21 and 22), due to poor digestion of the gastrointestinal tract, prolongs the digestive process, which will result in constipation (23).
- Fatty porridges (19 and 24-26)
- Use laxatives foods such as spinach, lettuce, turkey, cabbage leaves (17 and 27)
- Sufficient water: (17) In new guidelines, adequate water intake, especially constipation is considered to be effective (5). Of course, in traditional medicine sources, it is not recommended to increase water use in the elimination of all types of constipation (17).
- Snacks like dried figs, pistachios, almonds, currants, dried figs, cooked fruits, sweet ripe melons before meals (17)

Therapeutic methods of traditional medicine:
- Stretching during a mild walk (23)
- Creating order in defecation and bowel movements when feeling off (17)
- Keep body warm in very cold environments (17)
- Keep your stomach warm, especially in cold weather (17 and 21)
- Non-use of very cold and bitter foods (19-21 and 25)
- Avoid overeating (23)
- Avoiding Drugs (17)
- Avoiding Severe Psychological Stress (16 and 19)
- Ginger: In addition to laxative, it is also effective in relieving nausea (17, 28)
- Golghand alone or sour with Golghand (27): The method of making “griffin” is to combine the flowers with the weight of that honey or sugar and put it under appropriate temperature conditions for a while until the process is completed. Golghand also plays an important role in reducing bloating and gastrointestinal uplift (23, 28)
- “Torangebine” with rose water: In the Alhekmatelkholase book, the best combination of laxatives is mentioned, which are usable in most temperaments, times and cities, and it is easy to eat and, of course, those who are prone to diarrhea should be careful with it. 19 and 25)
- “Mubarak” laxative: The author of the Altebelmizan, expressed combinational Mubarak laxative in this book, based on his experiences, is useful in most of the esophagus and outbreaks, and agrees with most temperaments and can be used by pregnant women and children and the elderly. It can also be useful in treating fever and inflammation of the digestive tract. (29)
- Sweet Almond Oil (22)
- rose petals (22)


Constipation is one of the most common problems in the new life style. In Germany, about 25% of women and 10% of men (30) and in the United States between 20% and 28% of the population face this problem. (31) Iran reported a prevalence of 3.5%. (32 and 33). Lipid medications along with homeopathic remedies are the most commonly used non-prescription drugs in the world. In Germany, 39 million units of laxative drugs are sold annually, and 600 million are sold in the United States. (34) The annual constipation in the United States leads to 2.5 million physician visits. The economic value of care for each patient with constipation is estimated at an average of $ US 2,752. (35) Many of the molecular structures of modern drugs are based on the effects of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine systems. (36) So searching in traditional medicine texts is a good way to find new drugs. The use of modern therapy has many problems. Therefore, new strategies are aimed at shortening processes to reduce costs and making it easier to get effective medications. (37) One of these strategies is the use of therapies and medicinal plants and medications used in traditional medicine for centuries. This study was a review study in which we tried to compare the treatment of constipation in modern medicine with traditional Iranian medicine. According to the studies, the main method of treatment in modern medicine is the use of laxatives that can have many complications, but traditional medicine methods are related to the correcting of life and food practices and treatments by medicinal plants that have the least complications. However, the low risk or safety of pharmaceutical treatments in traditional medicine requires several clinical trials so far researchers have not focused on researching these topics. Due to the prevalence of constipation and the existence of several herbal remedies in traditional Iranian medicine, it is suggested that more clinical trials should be conducted to prove the low risk and even the effectiveness of these medicinal plants, in order for them to achieve the role of chemical treatments with low complications.


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