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November 2017 -
Volume 15, Issue 9

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From the Editor

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Original contribution/Clinical Investigation
Diabetes Mellitus - Knowledge, Management and Complications: Survey report from Faisalabad-Pakistan
Ijaz Anwer, Ahmad Shahzad, Kashmira Nanji, Farah Haider, Muhammad Masood Ahmad

Alanine aminotransferase indicates excess weight and dyslipidemia
Mehmet Rami Helvaci, Orhan Ayyildiz* Mustafa Cem Algin, Yusuf Aydin, Abdulrazak Abyad, Lesley Pocock

Comparative Analysis of Antimicrobial Peptides Gene Expression in Susceptible/Resistant Mice Macrophages to Leishmania major Infection

Hamid Daneshvar, Iraj Sharifi, Alireza Kyhani, Amir Tavakoli Kareshk, Arash Asadi

Does socio-economic status of the patients have effect on clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery?
Forough Razmjooei, Afshin Mansourian, Saeed Kouhpyma

Comparison of the uterine artery Doppler indices during pregnancy between gestational diabetes and diabetes mellitus and healthy pregnant women
Nazanin Farshchian, Farhad Naleini, Amir Masoud Jaafarnejhad,
Parisa Bahrami Kamangar

Survey single dose Gentamicin in treatment of UTI in children with range of 1 month to 13 years old in Jahrom during 2015
Ehsan Rahmanian, Farideh Mogharab,
Vahid Mogharab

Evaluation of control of bleeding by electro cauterization of bleeding points of amplatz sheath tract after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in Jahrom Peymanieh hospital during year 2015-2016
Ali Reza Yousefi , Reza Inaloo

Comparison of the three-finger tracheal palpation technique with triple ID formula to determine endotracheal tube depth in children 2-8 years in 2016-2017
Anahid Maleki, Alireza Ebrahim Soltani, Alireza Takzare, Ebrahim Espahbodi,
Mehrdad Goodarzi , Roya Noori

Effect of Sevoflurane and Propofol on pulmonary arterial pressure during cardiac catheterization in children with congenital heart diseases
Faranak Behnaz, Mahshid Ghasemi , Gholamreza Mohseni, Azim Zaraki
Population and Community Studies

Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children aged 2-12 years in the Abu Dhabi Islands
Eideh Al-Shehhi, Hessa Al-Dhefairi, Kholoud Abuasi, Noora Al Ali, Mona Al Tunaiji, Ebtihal Darwish

Study and comparison of psychological disorders in normal students and students with multiple sclerosis in Shahrekord
Neda Ardestani-Samani, Mohammad Rabiei, Mohammad Ghasemi-Pirbalooti, Asghar Bayati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani

Comparative study of self-concept, physical self-concept, and time perspective between the students with multiple sclerosis and healthy students in Shahrekord
Neda Ardestani-Samani, Mohammad Rabiei, Mohammad Ghasemi-Pirbalooti, Asghar Bayati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani

Relationship between Coping Styles and Religious Orientation with Mental Health in the Students of the Nursing-Midwifery Faculty of Zabol
Nasim Dastras, Mohsen Heidari Mokarrar, Majid Dastras, Shirzad Arianmehr

Tuberculosis in Abadan, Iran (2012-2016): An Epidemiological Study
Ali-Asghar ValiPour, Azimeh Karimyan, Mahmood Banarimehr, Marzieh Ghassemi, Maryam Robeyhavi, Rahil Hojjati,
Parvin Gholizadeh

Family Stability and Conflict of Spiritual Beliefs and Superstitions among Yazdi People in Iran: A Qualitative Study
Zahra Pourmovahed , Seyed Saied Mazloomy Mahmoodabad ; Hassan Zareei Mahmoodabadi ; Hossein Tavangar ; Seyed Mojtaba Yassini Ardekani ; Ali Akbar Vaezi

A comparative study of the self-actualization in psychology and Islam
Simin Afrasibi, Zakieh Fattahi

The effectiveness of cognitive - behavioral therapy in reducing the post-traumatic stress symptoms in male students survivors of earthquake in the central district of Varzeghan
Sakineh Salamat, Dr.Ahad Ahangar, Robab Farajzadeh

Reviews

Effects and mechanisms of medicinal plants on stress hormone (cortisol): A systematic review
Kamal Solati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani, Lesley Pocock

Comparing Traditional and medical treatments for constipation : A Review Article
Mohammad Yaqub Rajput

A review of anti-measles and anti-rubella antibodies in 15- 25 year old women in Jahrom City in 2011
Ehsan Rahmania , Farideh Mogharab, Vahid Mogharab

Review of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children below 12 years old in Jahrom hospital, during 2010-2014
Ali Reza Yousefi , Reza Inaloo

Physical and mental health in Islam
Bahador Mehraki, Abdollah Gholami

International Health Affairs

The Challenges of Implementation of Professional Ethics Standards in Clinical Care from the viewpoint of Nursing Students and Nurses
Saeedeh Elhami, Kambiz Saberi, Maryam Ban, Sajedeh Mousaviasl, Nasim Hatefi Moadab, Marzieh Ghassemi

Cognitive Determinants of Physical Activity Intention among Iranian Nurses: An Application of Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction
Arsalan Ghaderi, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Behzad Mahaki, Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh,
Yadolah Zarezadeh , Erfan Sadeghi

Effect of resilience-based intervention on occupational stress among nurses
Hossein Jafarizadeh, Ebrahim Zhiyani, Nader Aghakhani, Vahid Alinejad, Yaser Moradi

Education and Training

Calculation of Salaries and Benefits of Faculty Members in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran
Abdolreza Gilavand

The effect of education on self-care behaviors of gastrointestinal side effects on patients undergoing chemotherapy
Shokoh Varaei, Ehsan Abadi Pishe, Shadan Pedram Razie, Lila Nezam Abadi Farahani

Creating and Validating the Faith Inventory for Students at Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz
Solmaz Choheili, Reza Pasha, Gholam Hossein Maktabi, Ehsan Moheb

Creating and Validating the Adjustment Inventory for the Students of Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz
Homa Choheili, Reza Pasha, Gholam Hossein Maktabi, Ehsan Moheb

Evaluating the Quality of Educational Services from the Viewpoints of Radiology Students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
Abdolreza Gilavand, Jafar Fatahiasl

An Investigation of Psychosocial aspect of Iranian Nursing Students' Clinical Setting
Mahsa Boozaripour , Zanyar Karimi, Sima Zohari Anbohi, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Fariba Borhani

Clinical Research and Methods

Comparison of the Antibacterial Effects of Chlorhexidine Mouth washes with Jaftex Mouth wash on Some Common Oral Microorganisms (An in Vitro Study)
Ebrahim Babadi, Zahra Bamzadeh, Fatemeh Babadi

Study of the effect of plasma jet on Fusarium isolates with ability to produce DON toxins
Elham Galin Abbasian, Mansour Bayat, Arash chaichi Nosrati, Seyed Jamal Hashemi, Mahmood Ghoranneviss

The comparison of anti-inflammatory effect in two methods of topical dexamethasone injection and topical application of ginger alcoholic extract after removing mandibular wisdom teeth
Sahar Zandi, Seyyed Muhammadreza Alavi, Kamran Mirzaie, Ramin Seyedian, Narges Aria, Saman Jokar

The effect of curcumin on growth and adherence of major microorganisms causing tooth decay
Leila Helalat, Ahmad Zarejavid, Alireza Ekrami, Mohammd Hosein Haghighizadeh, Mehdi Shiri Nasab


Middle East Quality Improvement Program
(MEQUIP QI&CPD)

Chief Editor -
Abdulrazak Abyad MD, MPH, MBA, AGSF, AFCHSE

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November 2017 - Volume 15, Issue 9

Study of the effect of plasma jet on Fusarium isolates with ability to produce DON toxins


Elham Galin Abbasian (1)
Mansour Bayat
(1)
Arash Chaichi Nosrati
(2)
Seyed Jamal Hashemi
(3)
Mahmood Ghoranneviss
(4)

(1) Department of Microbiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,Tehran, Iran
(2) Associate Professor, Division microbiology, Department of molecular & cell biology, Faculty of basic sciences, Lahijan branch, Islamic Azad university (IAU), Lahijan, Gilan, Iran
(3) Professor of Tehran University of medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
(4) Professor of physics, Plasma physics research center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Corresponding author:
Mansour Bayat
Professor of Physics, Plasma physics research center,
Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Tehran, Iran

Email:
dr_mansour_bayat@yahoo.com

Abstract

Introduction:
Fusarium species cause a variety of infections in humans, such as superficial, invasive and disseminated infections. The aim of this research is to study the effects of argon cold double atmospheric pressure plasma (DAPACP) on deactivating the cells or Fusarium spores which can seriously damage food products in vitro conditions.

Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from May 2015 to September 2016 during three cultivation periods of tea in Gilan and Mazandaran province. One sample was taken from each 50 square hectares of tea plantations prepared for harvesting and also from 60 tea manufacturers. At intervals of 3, 7 and 15 days, plates were studied and the colonies on each plate were identified and isolated and then their microscopic and also macroscopic properties were documented. Finally 150 colonies were selected. We prepared Czapek and liquid environments (Czpk), then the isolated samples were cultured using stab. Plasma system is a DAPACP system (AL2O3) which used a high voltage with 25KHZ frequency and is usually applied to a high voltage electrode.

Results: The amount and type of toxins in the environment with fixed toxicity vary . In the metabolic cycle, DON (deoxynivalenol) is first produced and then is metabolized in a few steps. Plasma jet treatment causes a relative reduction in concentration of DON per solvent volume or culture media; a statistically significant negative correlation is observed here. The negative correlation between DON, which has been measured in samples previously exposed to plasma jet for 60 seconds , is affected by plasma jet more than DON. Therefore, Z = -2 / 201, Sig = 0.028 is proven, and it occurs with more intensity compared to DON.

Conclusion: This study has confirmed that argon plasma jet system has destructive effects on mycotoxins such as DON and also on the microorganisms which produce mycotoxins. Although the physicochemical properties and structural changes of mycotoxins were not explained under plasma jet treatment, this study revealed that the plasma system needs certain conditions like time and toxin concentration of food, to remove and inactivate mycotoxins.

Key words: Fusarium, plasma jet, DON, toxins


INTRODUCTION

Fusarium species cause a variety of infections in humans, such as superficial, invasive and disseminated infections [1]. Clinical manifestation of Fusariosis depends on the host immune system and the entrance site of the organism [2]. Superficial and localized infections occur mainly in people with healthy immune systems, while invasive and disseminated infections have been seen in immunocompromised persons [3]. Fusarium species are considered as pathogenic agents in plants, crops and in some animals [4]. Fusarium species are widely distributed in soil and water [5, 6]. More than 50 species of Fusarium have been identified, twelve of which are associated with disease including; Fusariumsolani, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium which contributes to nearly 70 % of the cases [7, 8].

Fusarium species carry several virulence factors, including Mycotoxins which are cellular and humoral immune suppressive and cause tissue problems [9]. In addition, Fusarium species have the ability to combine to prosthetic materials and could also produce protease and collagenase [10].

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the several Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species which causes contamination in maize, wheat, barley, rice and other grains during their storage life and it is considered a risk factor for humans and animals [11]. This toxin causes nausea or vomiting and was first reported in Japan in 1972 following the consumption of mouldy barley [12].

DON is chemically a member of trichothecenes mycotoxins family and structurally is apolar organic material belonging to trichothecenes type B, with three free hydroxyl groups which causes its toxicity. One of the most significant physicochemical properties of DON is high-temperature heat resistance and water solubility [13].

Plasma as a state of matter has significantly different characteristics; plasma has no fixed shape or volume and can form magnetic lines and rays under magnetic fields. In accordance to this method used, plasma can be converted into a wide range of states; from being unbalanced to thermal equilibrium. The antimicrobial effects of plasma have been known for almost 50 years [18, 16].

Research has mainly focused on the use of plasma on nonliving surfaces, such as medical instruments. Plasma is a cold gas-like mixture of charged particles (free electron and proton particles) with neutral reactive particles including; gas molecules, free radicals and ultraviolet photons. When the reactor is launched in atmospheric pressure, a cool plasma jet is blown into the air [17]. Since this plasma jet can be used in sterilization of sensitive surfaces, it is a proper candidate to be applied instead/with the autoclave sterilization process for surgical and dental use as an effective agent to destroy bacteria and viruses [15].

The aim of this research is to study the effects of argon cold double atmospheric pressure plasma (DAPACP) on deactivating the cells of Fusarium spores which can seriously damage food products in vitro conditions. Moreover, fungi are used to investigate the efficacy of cold plasma in suppressing the produced mycotoxins.


MATERIALS AND METHODS


Sampling:
Samples were obtained from May 2015 to September 2016 during three cultivation periods of tea in Gilan and Mazandaran province through following the instructions of outdoor and indoor sampling. One sample was taken from each 50 square hectares of tea plantations that were prepared for harvesting and also from 60 tea manufacturers. Sampling was carried out by placing open plates at a height of 90-110 cm, 3 to 5 days after each rainfall from 9 o’clock till 3 pm during sunshine at 25 ± 3 ° C and when their velocity was measured at 30 m / s.

Six plates with malt extract agar, yeast extract agar, Czapek yeast extract agar, Czapek agar, sabouraud dextrose agar and potato dextrose agar were all mixed with 100 ppm chloramphenicol and 50 ppm tetracycline and were examined 3 to 5 days at 25 ° C before operation. All of them were applied for one group of samples. Plates containing 15 to 25 cubic centimeter of agar after 30, 60 and 90 minutes were sampled through plantations and 15, 30 and 60 minutes through factories; 900 plates were taken and then were placed in perforated polyethylene bags and sent to the laboratory. The plates were incubated at 25 ± 2 ° C in an aerobic environment.

One plate was kept in the dark, another one in the light and finally a pair of them was kept in light-dark enviroment. At intervals of 3, 7 and 15 days, plates were studied and the colonies on each plate were detected and isolated and then their microscopic and macroscopic properties were documented. Finally150 colonies were selected.

Cultivation & Isolation:
We prepared Czapekand liquid environments (Czpk), then the isolated samples were cultured using stab (in 3 places with a distance of 2 cm from each other and from the edge of the plate). Then they were incubated for 14 days at 25 ° C. Samples were then cultured in liquid environments of sB + ME and sB + yE. They were checked regularly to avoid drying and reduction in the volume of liquid, PBS was added to these environments. The samples were collected, and the extracted solution was added and filtered.The slides of the cultures were prepared and then stained with lacto phenol.

Extracted solutions from solid and liquid environments were prepared for ELISA technique. Then the samples were exposed to cold plasma jet and were set at 30 seconds, 60 seconds and 360 seconds in certain concentrations. At this stage, sample volume was reduced.

PLASMA JET SYSTEM

Plasma system is a DAPACP system (AL2O3). A high voltage with 25KHZ frequency is applied to a high voltage electrode. Voltage and the waveforms are recorded through a high voltage electrical connector with visual indicator. Argon gas is blown into the air through micro tubes to form a double plasma jet. Fusarium biomass and the extracted samples from culture media were collected at the bottom of the jet at a distance of 12 mm from the top of the double jet.

The emission spectrum of DAPACP jet is recorded using Spectroscopy. The spectra in Spectrograph are coupled via UV fiber.The effective gas enters a flexible tube and the plasma jet is induced by high frequency RF power supplies.

The fungus used in this study is called Fusarium. For inoculation, MEA is cultured on the new plates and at the end of the incubation period, spores are carefully removed and combined with 2% of Tween 80 as emulsifier and the solution is filtered.

After applying an appropriate solution, spores are released on the surface of OMMEA and they are incubated at 25 ° C for 7 days where the colonies are counted. After plasma jet exposure, the activated spores in distilled water are placed in sterilized tubes and plasma-exposed samples were used.

Colonies are regularly counted and 5 tests are used for each sample during each treatment. The experiment is repeated three times with similar conditions. Due to plasma treatment, another control sample is inoculated with the spores and is exposed to argon-oxygen gas mixture with same velocity.

This is to ensure the deactivation of plasma-exposed fungi or the removal of the spores from the surface of samples. The production of five mycotoxins which are isolated from five Fusarium species obtained from processing manufacturers and different foods and the spores of the investigated fungus are obtained on malt extract agar (MEA).

In preliminary tests, the isolated Fusarium used in this study are identified as a major source of T and DON toxin. The procedure used in this experiment is similar to what is used for spore sprouting. Inoculated fungi that had been previously sterilized without plasma treatment, are used as control in 5 culture medias and the tests are repeated three times under the same conditions.