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November 2017 -
Volume 15, Issue 9

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From the Editor

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Original contribution/Clinical Investigation
Diabetes Mellitus - Knowledge, Management and Complications: Survey report from Faisalabad-Pakistan
Ijaz Anwer, Ahmad Shahzad, Kashmira Nanji, Farah Haider, Muhammad Masood Ahmad

Alanine aminotransferase indicates excess weight and dyslipidemia
Mehmet Rami Helvaci, Orhan Ayyildiz* Mustafa Cem Algin, Yusuf Aydin, Abdulrazak Abyad, Lesley Pocock

Comparative Analysis of Antimicrobial Peptides Gene Expression in Susceptible/Resistant Mice Macrophages to Leishmania major Infection

Hamid Daneshvar, Iraj Sharifi, Alireza Kyhani, Amir Tavakoli Kareshk, Arash Asadi

Does socio-economic status of the patients have effect on clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery?
Forough Razmjooei, Afshin Mansourian, Saeed Kouhpyma

Comparison of the uterine artery Doppler indices during pregnancy between gestational diabetes and diabetes mellitus and healthy pregnant women
Nazanin Farshchian, Farhad Naleini, Amir Masoud Jaafarnejhad,
Parisa Bahrami Kamangar

Survey single dose Gentamicin in treatment of UTI in children with range of 1 month to 13 years old in Jahrom during 2015
Ehsan Rahmanian, Farideh Mogharab,
Vahid Mogharab

Evaluation of control of bleeding by electro cauterization of bleeding points of amplatz sheath tract after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in Jahrom Peymanieh hospital during year 2015-2016
Ali Reza Yousefi , Reza Inaloo

Comparison of the three-finger tracheal palpation technique with triple ID formula to determine endotracheal tube depth in children 2-8 years in 2016-2017
Anahid Maleki, Alireza Ebrahim Soltani, Alireza Takzare, Ebrahim Espahbodi,
Mehrdad Goodarzi , Roya Noori

Effect of Sevoflurane and Propofol on pulmonary arterial pressure during cardiac catheterization in children with congenital heart diseases
Faranak Behnaz, Mahshid Ghasemi , Gholamreza Mohseni, Azim Zaraki
Population and Community Studies

Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children aged 2-12 years in the Abu Dhabi Islands
Eideh Al-Shehhi, Hessa Al-Dhefairi, Kholoud Abuasi, Noora Al Ali, Mona Al Tunaiji, Ebtihal Darwish

Study and comparison of psychological disorders in normal students and students with multiple sclerosis in Shahrekord
Neda Ardestani-Samani, Mohammad Rabiei, Mohammad Ghasemi-Pirbalooti, Asghar Bayati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani

Comparative study of self-concept, physical self-concept, and time perspective between the students with multiple sclerosis and healthy students in Shahrekord
Neda Ardestani-Samani, Mohammad Rabiei, Mohammad Ghasemi-Pirbalooti, Asghar Bayati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani

Relationship between Coping Styles and Religious Orientation with Mental Health in the Students of the Nursing-Midwifery Faculty of Zabol
Nasim Dastras, Mohsen Heidari Mokarrar, Majid Dastras, Shirzad Arianmehr

Tuberculosis in Abadan, Iran (2012-2016): An Epidemiological Study
Ali-Asghar ValiPour, Azimeh Karimyan, Mahmood Banarimehr, Marzieh Ghassemi, Maryam Robeyhavi, Rahil Hojjati,
Parvin Gholizadeh

Family Stability and Conflict of Spiritual Beliefs and Superstitions among Yazdi People in Iran: A Qualitative Study
Zahra Pourmovahed , Seyed Saied Mazloomy Mahmoodabad ; Hassan Zareei Mahmoodabadi ; Hossein Tavangar ; Seyed Mojtaba Yassini Ardekani ; Ali Akbar Vaezi

A comparative study of the self-actualization in psychology and Islam
Simin Afrasibi, Zakieh Fattahi

The effectiveness of cognitive - behavioral therapy in reducing the post-traumatic stress symptoms in male students survivors of earthquake in the central district of Varzeghan
Sakineh Salamat, Dr.Ahad Ahangar, Robab Farajzadeh

Reviews

Effects and mechanisms of medicinal plants on stress hormone (cortisol): A systematic review
Kamal Solati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani, Lesley Pocock

Comparing Traditional and medical treatments for constipation : A Review Article
Mohammad Yaqub Rajput

A review of anti-measles and anti-rubella antibodies in 15- 25 year old women in Jahrom City in 2011
Ehsan Rahmania , Farideh Mogharab, Vahid Mogharab

Review of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children below 12 years old in Jahrom hospital, during 2010-2014
Ali Reza Yousefi , Reza Inaloo

Physical and mental health in Islam
Bahador Mehraki, Abdollah Gholami

International Health Affairs

The Challenges of Implementation of Professional Ethics Standards in Clinical Care from the viewpoint of Nursing Students and Nurses
Saeedeh Elhami, Kambiz Saberi, Maryam Ban, Sajedeh Mousaviasl, Nasim Hatefi Moadab, Marzieh Ghassemi

Cognitive Determinants of Physical Activity Intention among Iranian Nurses: An Application of Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction
Arsalan Ghaderi, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Behzad Mahaki, Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh,
Yadolah Zarezadeh , Erfan Sadeghi

Effect of resilience-based intervention on occupational stress among nurses
Hossein Jafarizadeh, Ebrahim Zhiyani, Nader Aghakhani, Vahid Alinejad, Yaser Moradi

Education and Training

Calculation of Salaries and Benefits of Faculty Members in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran
Abdolreza Gilavand

The effect of education on self-care behaviors of gastrointestinal side effects on patients undergoing chemotherapy
Shokoh Varaei, Ehsan Abadi Pishe, Shadan Pedram Razie, Lila Nezam Abadi Farahani

Creating and Validating the Faith Inventory for Students at Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz
Solmaz Choheili, Reza Pasha, Gholam Hossein Maktabi, Ehsan Moheb

Creating and Validating the Adjustment Inventory for the Students of Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz
Homa Choheili, Reza Pasha, Gholam Hossein Maktabi, Ehsan Moheb

Evaluating the Quality of Educational Services from the Viewpoints of Radiology Students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
Abdolreza Gilavand, Jafar Fatahiasl

An Investigation of Psychosocial aspect of Iranian Nursing Students' Clinical Setting
Mahsa Boozaripour , Zanyar Karimi, Sima Zohari Anbohi, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Fariba Borhani

Clinical Research and Methods

Comparison of the Antibacterial Effects of Chlorhexidine Mouth washes with Jaftex Mouth wash on Some Common Oral Microorganisms (An in Vitro Study)
Ebrahim Babadi, Zahra Bamzadeh, Fatemeh Babadi

Study of the effect of plasma jet on Fusarium isolates with ability to produce DON toxins
Elham Galin Abbasian, Mansour Bayat, Arash chaichi Nosrati, Seyed Jamal Hashemi, Mahmood Ghoranneviss

The comparison of anti-inflammatory effect in two methods of topical dexamethasone injection and topical application of ginger alcoholic extract after removing mandibular wisdom teeth
Sahar Zandi, Seyyed Muhammadreza Alavi, Kamran Mirzaie, Ramin Seyedian, Narges Aria, Saman Jokar

The effect of curcumin on growth and adherence of major microorganisms causing tooth decay
Leila Helalat, Ahmad Zarejavid, Alireza Ekrami, Mohammd Hosein Haghighizadeh, Mehdi Shiri Nasab


Middle East Quality Improvement Program
(MEQUIP QI&CPD)

Chief Editor -
Abdulrazak Abyad MD, MPH, MBA, AGSF, AFCHSE

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November 2017 - Volume 15, Issue 9

Creating and Validating the Faith Inventory for Students at Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz


Solmaz Choheili (1)
Reza Pasha
(2)
Gholam Hossein Maktabi
(3)
Ehsan Moheb
(4)

(1) MA in Educational Psychology, Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
(2) Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
(3) Department of Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
(4) Phd in Educational Psychology, Department of Educational Psychology, Shahre-kord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahre-kord, Iran

Corresponding author:
Reza Pasha
Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Ahvaz, Iran
Email: g.rpasha@yahoo.com

Abstract


This study aimed to develop and validate the faith inventory. A sample of 736 students of Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz was selected by multi-stage random sampling method and a faith inventory with 100 items was used to measure their faith. Each item was based on the five-point Likert scale from Not fully used to Fully used. After collecting data, the correlation of each item with the total score was calculated. The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for the 100-item set was 0.967; after eliminating 10 items for a set of 90 questions, it was 0.996. Factor analysis was used to verify the construct validity of the inventory; the KMO value as a measure of sampling adequacy was 0.958 and the significance of the Bartlett’s sphere test indicated that there were suitable conditions for implementing factor analysis. After removal of inappropriate questions with a factor load of less than 0.3, based on the analysis of principal components and varimax rotation, according to the factor matrix, gradient diagram and the percentage of variance explained, four factors were extracted from a set of 90 questions, explaining 44.87% of the total variance among the variables. The first factor with 57 items and the special value of 30.97 covers about 69.02% of the total variance of the variables and is an indicator of belief/certainty; the second factor with 14 items indicatesjustice, the third factor with nine items, shows the Jihad and the fourth factor with 10 items measures the patience.

Key words: Faith, Validity, Inventory, Narration


INTRODUCTION

Faith and religious beliefs in Iranian society are considered as the main pillars of life and over the three last decades, religious teachings have been particularly emphasized (1). Faith refers to any type of principle, guidance, belief, certainty or tendency that makes life meaningful and purposeful (2). No decent psycho-inventoryist - even a non-religious one - can ignore the importance of religion, faith, and religious beliefs in the process of psychotherapy, mental health, meaningfulness of life, psycho-inventoryical well-being, and so on (3). The results of psychoinventoryical studies have shown that children who have been trained by strongly religious teachings before adolescence and adulthood, question their religious beliefs and nearby people in their adulthood. This is due to the fact that human thinking grows, and rapid cognitive development makes it easier for them to judge on matters of value and religion and to react more precisely and complicatedly to these issues (4, 5). Adults are at the highest risk of poverty and neglect of human values and diminished faith and should be placed as priority in psychological studies of value and religion. Considering that until now, research on recognition of the faith periods based on the stages of development have been less considered, conducting a study that can providea scientific basis for the design and examination of the concept of faith of people in a particular cultural area based on the process of transforming concepts, is seriously needed. This first and foremost requires the need for accurate, valid and reliable tools for obtaining strong results.

Fowler (6) does not present a comprehensive definition of faith and only summarizes some of the characteristics of faith: “Faith is an inclusive thing in all human beings. We have been equipped with the capacity of faith from birth”. He focuses on the two characteristics of faith: universality and fundamentality: “Faith is so fundamental that no human being can live well without having it for a long time, and it is so comprehensive, namely when we slowly present symbols, slogans, or moral patterns, we express our faith. Clear faith is the only common phenomenon in all religions, the Christians, Marxists, Hindus, and Dinka (Ekman, 1995). Fowler (6) regards faith as a general conception and states: “Faith is a puzzle that is not easy to understand.”

Man’s orientation or reaction to himself, others, and the universe is called belief (7). Faith reflects human talent in seeing and feeling; the transcendent dimension and corresponding behavior reflects its capacity in the perception of meaning beyond materiality. In other words, faith is any kind of principle and guidance, belief and certainty, which gives meaning to one’s life and directs it and as a way of life originates from human nature (Mohammadzadeh, 2005).

Fowler (6) presents theory of faith, with a perceptual model about the effects of faith. This theory has raised the concept of faith, its relation to life, the goals of humanity, and the sense of creating meaning in life. According to Fowler (8), the theory of faith shows the way people understand faith throughout life.

The development of measurement methods and new psychometric theories have led to the emergence of new scholarly methods for assessing the talents, abilities and other psychometric characteristics of individuals that have been considered by the instructors, consultants, psychologists and other behavioral science experts. Although a number of instruments have been developed for measurement of religious tendencies and similar subjects, limited research has been carried out on the measurement of faith due to its newness. Because this tool (inventory) is designed to measure students’ faith, it is necessary to measure its validity and reliability among the students. Considering that the subject under study has an exploratory aspect, it is also necessary to provide an answer to the following questions:

1. Is there enough internal consistency between the set of questions that are presented to assess the students’ faith?
2. Is the set of questions designed to measure the students’ faith sufficiently valid?
3. What are the underlying components of faith inventory for students and how much are they saturated?

METHOD

The statistical population in this study consists of all 736 students of Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz in the academic year of 2016-2017. A multi-stage sampling method was used to determine the sample size. To this end, the population of each faculty was determined and divided into four faculties (Faculty of Agriculture, Faculty of Midwifery and Nursing, Faculty of Engineering and Faculty of Humanities) and participants who were randomly selected by lot from all four faculties in proportion to the population of each district based on sex. The faith inventory is designed to be applicable to all meta-religious areas with visible faith and implications. Therefore, the questions are designed to show people’s faith beyond religious orientations.

The main collection consists of 100 items. Initially, the content validity of the questions was approved by a number of professors, psychologists and counselors to ensure that the items are understandable and applicable to the student groups. After this stage, the items was administered for a group of 736 students from Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz. The initial validity coefficient of the inventory for the set of 100 questions was rtt = 966.0. For the second time, the validity of the inventory was calculated after the removal of other questions with factor load less than 0.3. The validity coefficient after the elimination of questions 3-10-31-35-38-39-41-58-59-93 for the 90-item set was re-calculated and was rtt = 0.969. In the present study, the KMO value is 0.958 and the Bartlett test was 30853.115, which is significant at 0.0001. Thus, in addition to the sampling adequacy, the implementation of the factor analysis based on the understudy matrix can also be justified.

FINDINGS

Table 1: KMO size and results of Bartlett’s test of faith inventory

Table 2 shows the initial statistical characteristics that were obtained by the analysis of the main components, with a special value of 4 factors higher than 1, and the extent of explaining the common variance of variables for these four factors is equal to 44.887% of the total variance of variables.

Click here for Table 2: Primary statistical characteristics of a 100-question inventory

The slope design, which is a graph of the special values of a 100-item faith inventory, is shown in Figure (1).

Figure 1: Slope design

The slope design indicates that the contribution of the first factor in the variance of all variables is significant and differs from the contribution of other factors. In the next step, based on the special value, the percentage of variance and the slope design, four factors were considered as the basis for determining the final characteristics. Here, it is worth noting that some researchers in order to investigate the nature of relationships between variables and finding definitions of factors state that coefficients above 0.30 and coefficients higher than 0.40 are significant in the definition of factors and the coefficients below this limit are considered to be zero (random factor). For example, Jones (1954) used the lowest coefficient of 0.3, Houman (1988) used 0.35 and Reynold et al. (1981) used 0.4 values. In the present study, this coefficient is equal to 0.40.

Given that variables in factors 5 and 6 have a factor load, but the number of questions in these factors is less than 3, so according to the relevant theories, sometimes four questions and sometimes 10 questions are at least needed to form a factor. In this study, at least 4 questions were considered for the formation of the factor. Based on the results of factor analysis and the above-mentioned indicators, four factors were extracted from all questions and the special value of four factors/ fourth factor explain the value higher than 44.87. The first factor is a special value of 30.97 and and ultimately the fourth factor justifies a special value of 2.99. After ensuring that the sampling is adequate and that the correlation matrix, which is the basis of the factor analysis, is not equal to zero in population, factor analysis was performed.

The special values of these four factors, the percentage of explanation of variance and the condensation percentage of the explained variance are shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Special value of the percentage of the explanation of the condensation variance of the four factors

The extracted factors were transferred to new axes using the varimax rotation method. The main matrix after the varimax rotation, which was obtained after 8 repetitions, is shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Factor matrix after rotation


DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

To investigate the construct validity and answer the question that considers the number of the factors that saturate the faith inventory, the Principal Component Analysis (PC) method was used. Before performing factor analysis, sampling adequacy was proved using Kaisel Mager Olking (KMO) size, and also rejecting the null hypothesis by the Bartlett Sphericity test that the identity matrix is correct in the population; this shows that factor analysis is justifiable.

The factor matrix indicates that the first factor has the highest factor load and its contribution is also more significant than other factors. The results of factor analysis show that this scale has sufficient validity and is saturated with four factors. In order to simplify the extraction factors, the varimax rotation was used. After the interpretation and naming of the factors, the results are as follows: The largest factor load in the structure matrix is for question 36 (0. 797).

Questions 22-28-32-43-62-72-79-88-97-98-99 focus on two or three factors that are likely to be complicated questions.

The rest of the questions are very pure or their factor load in other factors other than the extracted clusters is negligible.

There is no question without factor load, and in each factor there are at least four variables.

A set of questions with a strong and meaningful correlation make up a piece of test that was extracted and named as follows.

1. From the 100 items of the faith inventory, 57 items are strongly correlated with the first factor marked as “certainty”.
2. The second factor with 14 items was marked “justice”.
3. The third factor with 9 items was marked as “jihad”.
4. The fourth factor measures “patience” and consists of 10