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November 2017 -
Volume 15, Issue 9

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From the Editor



Original contribution/Clinical Investigation
Diabetes Mellitus - Knowledge, Management and Complications: Survey report from Faisalabad-Pakistan
Ijaz Anwer, Ahmad Shahzad, Kashmira Nanji, Farah Haider, Muhammad Masood Ahmad

Alanine aminotransferase indicates excess weight and dyslipidemia
Mehmet Rami Helvaci, Orhan Ayyildiz* Mustafa Cem Algin, Yusuf Aydin, Abdulrazak Abyad, Lesley Pocock

Comparative Analysis of Antimicrobial Peptides Gene Expression in Susceptible/Resistant Mice Macrophages to Leishmania major Infection

Hamid Daneshvar, Iraj Sharifi, Alireza Kyhani, Amir Tavakoli Kareshk, Arash Asadi

Does socio-economic status of the patients have effect on clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery?
Forough Razmjooei, Afshin Mansourian, Saeed Kouhpyma

Comparison of the uterine artery Doppler indices during pregnancy between gestational diabetes and diabetes mellitus and healthy pregnant women
Nazanin Farshchian, Farhad Naleini, Amir Masoud Jaafarnejhad,
Parisa Bahrami Kamangar

Survey single dose Gentamicin in treatment of UTI in children with range of 1 month to 13 years old in Jahrom during 2015
Ehsan Rahmanian, Farideh Mogharab,
Vahid Mogharab

Evaluation of control of bleeding by electro cauterization of bleeding points of amplatz sheath tract after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in Jahrom Peymanieh hospital during year 2015-2016
Ali Reza Yousefi , Reza Inaloo

Comparison of the three-finger tracheal palpation technique with triple ID formula to determine endotracheal tube depth in children 2-8 years in 2016-2017
Anahid Maleki, Alireza Ebrahim Soltani, Alireza Takzare, Ebrahim Espahbodi,
Mehrdad Goodarzi , Roya Noori

Effect of Sevoflurane and Propofol on pulmonary arterial pressure during cardiac catheterization in children with congenital heart diseases
Faranak Behnaz, Mahshid Ghasemi , Gholamreza Mohseni, Azim Zaraki
Population and Community Studies

Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children aged 2-12 years in the Abu Dhabi Islands
Eideh Al-Shehhi, Hessa Al-Dhefairi, Kholoud Abuasi, Noora Al Ali, Mona Al Tunaiji, Ebtihal Darwish

Study and comparison of psychological disorders in normal students and students with multiple sclerosis in Shahrekord
Neda Ardestani-Samani, Mohammad Rabiei, Mohammad Ghasemi-Pirbalooti, Asghar Bayati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani

Comparative study of self-concept, physical self-concept, and time perspective between the students with multiple sclerosis and healthy students in Shahrekord
Neda Ardestani-Samani, Mohammad Rabiei, Mohammad Ghasemi-Pirbalooti, Asghar Bayati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani

Relationship between Coping Styles and Religious Orientation with Mental Health in the Students of the Nursing-Midwifery Faculty of Zabol
Nasim Dastras, Mohsen Heidari Mokarrar, Majid Dastras, Shirzad Arianmehr

Tuberculosis in Abadan, Iran (2012-2016): An Epidemiological Study
Ali-Asghar ValiPour, Azimeh Karimyan, Mahmood Banarimehr, Marzieh Ghassemi, Maryam Robeyhavi, Rahil Hojjati,
Parvin Gholizadeh

Family Stability and Conflict of Spiritual Beliefs and Superstitions among Yazdi People in Iran: A Qualitative Study
Zahra Pourmovahed , Seyed Saied Mazloomy Mahmoodabad ; Hassan Zareei Mahmoodabadi ; Hossein Tavangar ; Seyed Mojtaba Yassini Ardekani ; Ali Akbar Vaezi

A comparative study of the self-actualization in psychology and Islam
Simin Afrasibi, Zakieh Fattahi

The effectiveness of cognitive - behavioral therapy in reducing the post-traumatic stress symptoms in male students survivors of earthquake in the central district of Varzeghan
Sakineh Salamat, Dr.Ahad Ahangar, Robab Farajzadeh


Effects and mechanisms of medicinal plants on stress hormone (cortisol): A systematic review
Kamal Solati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani, Lesley Pocock

Comparing Traditional and medical treatments for constipation : A Review Article
Mohammad Yaqub Rajput

A review of anti-measles and anti-rubella antibodies in 15- 25 year old women in Jahrom City in 2011
Ehsan Rahmania , Farideh Mogharab, Vahid Mogharab

Review of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children below 12 years old in Jahrom hospital, during 2010-2014
Ali Reza Yousefi , Reza Inaloo

Physical and mental health in Islam
Bahador Mehraki, Abdollah Gholami

International Health Affairs

The Challenges of Implementation of Professional Ethics Standards in Clinical Care from the viewpoint of Nursing Students and Nurses
Saeedeh Elhami, Kambiz Saberi, Maryam Ban, Sajedeh Mousaviasl, Nasim Hatefi Moadab, Marzieh Ghassemi

Cognitive Determinants of Physical Activity Intention among Iranian Nurses: An Application of Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction
Arsalan Ghaderi, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Behzad Mahaki, Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh,
Yadolah Zarezadeh , Erfan Sadeghi

Effect of resilience-based intervention on occupational stress among nurses
Hossein Jafarizadeh, Ebrahim Zhiyani, Nader Aghakhani, Vahid Alinejad, Yaser Moradi

Education and Training

Calculation of Salaries and Benefits of Faculty Members in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran
Abdolreza Gilavand

The effect of education on self-care behaviors of gastrointestinal side effects on patients undergoing chemotherapy
Shokoh Varaei, Ehsan Abadi Pishe, Shadan Pedram Razie, Lila Nezam Abadi Farahani

Creating and Validating the Faith Inventory for Students at Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz
Solmaz Choheili, Reza Pasha, Gholam Hossein Maktabi, Ehsan Moheb

Creating and Validating the Adjustment Inventory for the Students of Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz
Homa Choheili, Reza Pasha, Gholam Hossein Maktabi, Ehsan Moheb

Evaluating the Quality of Educational Services from the Viewpoints of Radiology Students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
Abdolreza Gilavand, Jafar Fatahiasl

An Investigation of Psychosocial aspect of Iranian Nursing Students' Clinical Setting
Mahsa Boozaripour , Zanyar Karimi, Sima Zohari Anbohi, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Fariba Borhani

Clinical Research and Methods

Comparison of the Antibacterial Effects of Chlorhexidine Mouth washes with Jaftex Mouth wash on Some Common Oral Microorganisms (An in Vitro Study)
Ebrahim Babadi, Zahra Bamzadeh, Fatemeh Babadi

Study of the effect of plasma jet on Fusarium isolates with ability to produce DON toxins
Elham Galin Abbasian, Mansour Bayat, Arash chaichi Nosrati, Seyed Jamal Hashemi, Mahmood Ghoranneviss

The comparison of anti-inflammatory effect in two methods of topical dexamethasone injection and topical application of ginger alcoholic extract after removing mandibular wisdom teeth
Sahar Zandi, Seyyed Muhammadreza Alavi, Kamran Mirzaie, Ramin Seyedian, Narges Aria, Saman Jokar

The effect of curcumin on growth and adherence of major microorganisms causing tooth decay
Leila Helalat, Ahmad Zarejavid, Alireza Ekrami, Mohammd Hosein Haghighizadeh, Mehdi Shiri Nasab

Middle East Quality Improvement Program

Chief Editor -
Abdulrazak Abyad MD, MPH, MBA, AGSF, AFCHSE


Publisher -
Lesley Pocock
medi+WORLD International
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November 2017 - Volume 15, Issue 9

Evaluating the Quality of Educational Services from the Viewpoints of Radiology Students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, in Southwest of Iran

Abdolreza Gilavand (1)
Jafar Fatahiasl
Razieh Mohamadi Majd

(1) Expert on Faculty Appointments, Department of Education Development Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
(2) Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology Technology, School of Paramedicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
(3) Undergraduate Student, Department of Radiology Technology, School of Paramedicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

Corresponding Author:
Jafar Fatahiasl,
Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology Technology, School of Paramedicine,
Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences,
Ahvaz, Iran.


One of the important criteria for assessing the quality of educational services in any university is the students’ opinions. In this regard, this study aimed to assess the quality of educational services from the viewpoints of radiology students of the School of Paramedicine of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences based on the SERVQUAL evaluation model.

Method: The statistical population of this descriptive and analytical study was all the 120 undergraduate students of radiology in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in southwest of Iran, of whom 115 were selected by census method. A standard questionnaire was used to collect data which were analyzed by SPSS version 22.

Findings: This study showed that there was a negative gap in all dimensions of the model. The corresponding gaps for each dimension are as follows (from highest to lowest): the assurance dimension (mean = 1.26), empathy dimension (mean = 1.16), reliability dimension (mean = 1.0), responsiveness dimension (mean = 1.09) and tangibles dimension (mean = 0.98). Also, there was no statistically significant difference between age, sex and academic year of the students and the percentage of the gap.

Discussion and Conclusion: Students’ expectations were beyond their perception of the status quo, and none of the five dimensions of the quality of educational services met their expectations. Therefore, it is necessary for the university to narrow the existing gap according to its type and severity.

Key words: Quality of Educational Services, Students, Radiology, Ahvaz, Iran.


Universities are responsible for training specialized and committed forces of the community (1). It is said that the first world medical university, Gondi Shapur, was founded in Iran 1800 years ago (2-3). The quality of services is now recognized as the main explanation for the success of an organization in today’s competitive environment, and any reduction in customer satisfaction due to poor service quality compromises its success. (4) In fact, the quality of services is the degree of compliance of services provided with customer expectations. Understanding and measuring customers’ perceptions and expectations is an essential component that can be used to improve the quality of service-providing organizations (5). Over the past two decades, socioeconomic changes, rapid information development, and technological innovations and economic globalization on the one hand, and the disproportionate content of educational programs in relation to the needs of society and lack of knowledge and skills of college graduates on the other, have introduced higher education systems into a new era in which “competition” and “quality” are considered as the main determining factors (6). In the midst of the turmoil and competition of today’s world, those organizations which care for meeting their customers’ needs and wants will succeed and overcome other market competitors. In other words, according to the new philosophy of marketing, namely customer orientation, organizations align their individual and team objectives around satisfying and retaining customers. Today, customer satisfaction is one of the most commonly used terms in the workplace, and it undoubtedly involves creating quality products and services, in line with, or even beyond their expectations. Therefore, quality is the most important factor in global competition, and organizations have to offer high quality goods or services in order to survive successfully in the marketplace (7). Educational and research services, particularly those provided by universities and institutes of higher education, are one of the most important service areas in the community, which play an unparalleled role in the development of societies. Therefore, continuously paying attention to improving the quality of educational and research services is necessary (8). The higher education system of Iran has undergone various ups and downs in its history, and it has experienced tremendous changes during the last decade. A large number of new educational institutions have been established lately and the rate of their enrollment has increased accordingly, and with their overemphasis on the quantitative growth in the student population, they have obviously gone into extremes, resulting in a decline in the quality indices of higher education institutions in the country. Of course, the increasing rate of enrollment is not by itself a reason for the quality of higher education, but what counts as the main duties of a university is proper administration, retention and satisfaction of students (9). This is because in a competitive market, what creates distinction is service satisfaction, so student satisfaction is a decisive factor for the evaluation of higher education institutions (10). However, considering that many intangible factors affect customer service satisfaction, quality assessment remains a challenge (11). Studies conducted at some Iranian medical universities show that there is a gap between students’ expectations and perceptions about the quality of educational services, and higher education institutions have not yet been able to meet the expectations of students (4-11), and this may reduce student motivation and increase their dissatisfaction. Now that in Iran, the expansion of universities is moving from a quantitative stage to a qualitative level, and medical and paramedical sciences are among the most popular fields of study in Iran, (12) the need for such research is felt more than ever. In this regard, this study aimed to assess the quality of educational services from the viewpoints of radiology students of the School of Paramedicine of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences based on the SERVQUAL evaluation model.


In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study, a total of 105 radiology students at the School of Paramedicine of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in southwest of Iran, were evaluated based on the SERVQUAL evaluation model in 2017. The statistical population included all the 120 students studying radiology at the School of Paramedicine. Sampling was done by census method and by distributing questionnaires among all of the students. All students were enrolled in the study. Out of the 120 distributed questionnaires, 105 questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate was 87.5%). Data were collected using a standard SERVQUAL questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: personal characteristics of students and five dimensions of the quality of educational services (i.e., tangibles, assurance, responsiveness, reliability, and empathy). The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed, and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha of 88%. In the tangibles or physical dimension, the students were asked about the physical environment of the service delivery including facilities, equipment, staff and communication channels, while in the dimension of assurance, they were supposed to answer questions regarding the competence and ability of the staff to inspire confidence in the service recipient. Questions relating to the responsiveness dimension, dealt with the willingness to cooperate and help the customer, whereas those in the reliability dimension were about the ability to serve in a reliable manner. Finally in the empathy dimension, the sense of belonging and commitment of the university staff towards students was the main concern. The questionnaire consisted of 26 items which were evaluated based on a five-choice scale (very low, low, moderate, high and very high). The students were asked about the ideal or desirable situation in the expectation component, and in the perceptions component, they answered questions about the status quo or what was available. Introduced by Parasuman et al in the early 1930s, the SERVQUAL model measures customer satisfaction based on the quality of the services provided, and the gap between the customer’s expectations of the service provided and their perceptions of those services is determined. According to Parasuraman et al, this framework covers all dimensions of service quality. Perceptions focus on “how it is” while expectations deal with “how it should be” (13). Also, in this research, all the necessary ethical considerations were observed.


Table 1 shows the demographic information of the students. According to this table, 30.1% were male, 69.9% female, 97.7% single, 2.7 % married, and 64.4% were satisfied with choosing radiology as their field of study while 35.6% were not satisfied. Also, 38.2% of the students were freshmen, 22.8% sophomores, 20.4% juniors and 18.6% last year. As regards their age, 55.2. % were under age 34.8% between 21 and 25, and 10 % over 26. Table 2 also shows the scores of expectations and perceptions and their gap. This study showed that the expectations of students were beyond their perception of the status quo, and none of the five dimensions of the quality of educational services met their expectations. The description of the dimensions are as follows: assurance (mean 1.26), empathy (mean 1.16), reliability (mean 1.10), responsiveness (mean 1.119) and tangibles (mean 0.98) had respectively the widest gaps. Also, the difference between men and women in the average gap and quality gap in the five dimensions of educational services was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in the average gap in the five dimensions of the quality of educational services in terms of age and academic year of the students. Table 3 shows the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the questionnaire in terms of the five dimensions of the quality of educational services.

Table 1. The demographic information of the participants

Click here for Table 2. Average scores of expectations, perceptions and quality gaps in each dimension of the quality of educational services

Table 3. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the questionnaire according to five dimensions of service quality