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November 2017 -
Volume 15, Issue 9

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From the Editor

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Original contribution/Clinical Investigation
Diabetes Mellitus - Knowledge, Management and Complications: Survey report from Faisalabad-Pakistan
Ijaz Anwer, Ahmad Shahzad, Kashmira Nanji, Farah Haider, Muhammad Masood Ahmad

Alanine aminotransferase indicates excess weight and dyslipidemia
Mehmet Rami Helvaci, Orhan Ayyildiz* Mustafa Cem Algin, Yusuf Aydin, Abdulrazak Abyad, Lesley Pocock

Comparative Analysis of Antimicrobial Peptides Gene Expression in Susceptible/Resistant Mice Macrophages to Leishmania major Infection

Hamid Daneshvar, Iraj Sharifi, Alireza Kyhani, Amir Tavakoli Kareshk, Arash Asadi

Does socio-economic status of the patients have effect on clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery?
Forough Razmjooei, Afshin Mansourian, Saeed Kouhpyma

Comparison of the uterine artery Doppler indices during pregnancy between gestational diabetes and diabetes mellitus and healthy pregnant women
Nazanin Farshchian, Farhad Naleini, Amir Masoud Jaafarnejhad,
Parisa Bahrami Kamangar

Survey single dose Gentamicin in treatment of UTI in children with range of 1 month to 13 years old in Jahrom during 2015
Ehsan Rahmanian, Farideh Mogharab,
Vahid Mogharab

Evaluation of control of bleeding by electro cauterization of bleeding points of amplatz sheath tract after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in Jahrom Peymanieh hospital during year 2015-2016
Ali Reza Yousefi , Reza Inaloo

Comparison of the three-finger tracheal palpation technique with triple ID formula to determine endotracheal tube depth in children 2-8 years in 2016-2017
Anahid Maleki, Alireza Ebrahim Soltani, Alireza Takzare, Ebrahim Espahbodi,
Mehrdad Goodarzi , Roya Noori

Effect of Sevoflurane and Propofol on pulmonary arterial pressure during cardiac catheterization in children with congenital heart diseases
Faranak Behnaz, Mahshid Ghasemi , Gholamreza Mohseni, Azim Zaraki
Population and Community Studies

Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children aged 2-12 years in the Abu Dhabi Islands
Eideh Al-Shehhi, Hessa Al-Dhefairi, Kholoud Abuasi, Noora Al Ali, Mona Al Tunaiji, Ebtihal Darwish

Study and comparison of psychological disorders in normal students and students with multiple sclerosis in Shahrekord
Neda Ardestani-Samani, Mohammad Rabiei, Mohammad Ghasemi-Pirbalooti, Asghar Bayati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani

Comparative study of self-concept, physical self-concept, and time perspective between the students with multiple sclerosis and healthy students in Shahrekord
Neda Ardestani-Samani, Mohammad Rabiei, Mohammad Ghasemi-Pirbalooti, Asghar Bayati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani

Relationship between Coping Styles and Religious Orientation with Mental Health in the Students of the Nursing-Midwifery Faculty of Zabol
Nasim Dastras, Mohsen Heidari Mokarrar, Majid Dastras, Shirzad Arianmehr

Tuberculosis in Abadan, Iran (2012-2016): An Epidemiological Study
Ali-Asghar ValiPour, Azimeh Karimyan, Mahmood Banarimehr, Marzieh Ghassemi, Maryam Robeyhavi, Rahil Hojjati,
Parvin Gholizadeh

Family Stability and Conflict of Spiritual Beliefs and Superstitions among Yazdi People in Iran: A Qualitative Study
Zahra Pourmovahed , Seyed Saied Mazloomy Mahmoodabad ; Hassan Zareei Mahmoodabadi ; Hossein Tavangar ; Seyed Mojtaba Yassini Ardekani ; Ali Akbar Vaezi

A comparative study of the self-actualization in psychology and Islam
Simin Afrasibi, Zakieh Fattahi

The effectiveness of cognitive - behavioral therapy in reducing the post-traumatic stress symptoms in male students survivors of earthquake in the central district of Varzeghan
Sakineh Salamat, Dr.Ahad Ahangar, Robab Farajzadeh

Reviews

Effects and mechanisms of medicinal plants on stress hormone (cortisol): A systematic review
Kamal Solati, Saeid Heidari-Soureshjani, Lesley Pocock

Comparing Traditional and medical treatments for constipation : A Review Article
Mohammad Yaqub Rajput

A review of anti-measles and anti-rubella antibodies in 15- 25 year old women in Jahrom City in 2011
Ehsan Rahmania , Farideh Mogharab, Vahid Mogharab

Review of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children below 12 years old in Jahrom hospital, during 2010-2014
Ali Reza Yousefi , Reza Inaloo

Physical and mental health in Islam
Bahador Mehraki, Abdollah Gholami

International Health Affairs

The Challenges of Implementation of Professional Ethics Standards in Clinical Care from the viewpoint of Nursing Students and Nurses
Saeedeh Elhami, Kambiz Saberi, Maryam Ban, Sajedeh Mousaviasl, Nasim Hatefi Moadab, Marzieh Ghassemi

Cognitive Determinants of Physical Activity Intention among Iranian Nurses: An Application of Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction
Arsalan Ghaderi, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Behzad Mahaki, Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh,
Yadolah Zarezadeh , Erfan Sadeghi

Effect of resilience-based intervention on occupational stress among nurses
Hossein Jafarizadeh, Ebrahim Zhiyani, Nader Aghakhani, Vahid Alinejad, Yaser Moradi

Education and Training

Calculation of Salaries and Benefits of Faculty Members in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran
Abdolreza Gilavand

The effect of education on self-care behaviors of gastrointestinal side effects on patients undergoing chemotherapy
Shokoh Varaei, Ehsan Abadi Pishe, Shadan Pedram Razie, Lila Nezam Abadi Farahani

Creating and Validating the Faith Inventory for Students at Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz
Solmaz Choheili, Reza Pasha, Gholam Hossein Maktabi, Ehsan Moheb

Creating and Validating the Adjustment Inventory for the Students of Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz
Homa Choheili, Reza Pasha, Gholam Hossein Maktabi, Ehsan Moheb

Evaluating the Quality of Educational Services from the Viewpoints of Radiology Students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
Abdolreza Gilavand, Jafar Fatahiasl

An Investigation of Psychosocial aspect of Iranian Nursing Students' Clinical Setting
Mahsa Boozaripour , Zanyar Karimi, Sima Zohari Anbohi, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Fariba Borhani

Clinical Research and Methods

Comparison of the Antibacterial Effects of Chlorhexidine Mouth washes with Jaftex Mouth wash on Some Common Oral Microorganisms (An in Vitro Study)
Ebrahim Babadi, Zahra Bamzadeh, Fatemeh Babadi

Study of the effect of plasma jet on Fusarium isolates with ability to produce DON toxins
Elham Galin Abbasian, Mansour Bayat, Arash chaichi Nosrati, Seyed Jamal Hashemi, Mahmood Ghoranneviss

The comparison of anti-inflammatory effect in two methods of topical dexamethasone injection and topical application of ginger alcoholic extract after removing mandibular wisdom teeth
Sahar Zandi, Seyyed Muhammadreza Alavi, Kamran Mirzaie, Ramin Seyedian, Narges Aria, Saman Jokar

The effect of curcumin on growth and adherence of major microorganisms causing tooth decay
Leila Helalat, Ahmad Zarejavid, Alireza Ekrami, Mohammd Hosein Haghighizadeh, Mehdi Shiri Nasab


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(MEQUIP QI&CPD)

Chief Editor -
Abdulrazak Abyad MD, MPH, MBA, AGSF, AFCHSE

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November 2017 - Volume 15, Issue 9

Physical and mental health in Islam


Bahador Mehraki
Abdollah Gholami

Assistant Professor of Islamic Education Department School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Corresponding author:
Dr. Bahador Mehraki
Assistant Professor of Islamic Education Department School of Medicine,
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,
Shiraz, Iran
Tel:09173039902

Email:
Dr.b.mehraki@gmail.com

Abstract

Physical and mental health is one of the most important and fundamental issues of life in every society. The teachings of Islam consider physical and mental health as one of the most important features of Muslims, and as the promoter of the development of good traits and peace and comfort of mankind. Scholars and practitioners of empirical sciences have also made great efforts throughout history to maintain and improve human health. The basic question is: What is the effect of Islamic teachings on Muslims’ life? To what extent do these teachings correspond to the achievements of empirical thinkers, especially doctors and psychologists? Accordingly, the present paper tries to examine the impact of religious teachings on the behavior and actions of Muslims and their degree of consistency with the views of researchers in the field of empirical sciences. The findings of this study highlight the role of faith, marriage, and observance of individual and social health principles in the physical and mental balance and stability of humans.

Key words: health, peace, physical illnesses, mental disorders, religious doctrines


INTRODUCTION

One of the most important discussions in Islam, like other divine religions, is human physical and mental health. According to the credible Islamic works and references, human physical and mental health has received serious attention in the words the Prophet of Islam (PBUH) and the Qur’anic verses, and the words of the infallible Imams (PBUH).

On the other hand, the issue of health in the history of mankind has attracted the attention of the scholars of empirical sciences, including both traditional medicine and modern medicine, in a way conceivable for human societies. For instance, in traditional medicine, scholars such as Avicenna, Zakaria Razi, and Seyed Esmael Jorjani were the first Iranian physicians at the Jundishapur University of Ahvaz who were involved in promoting human health even though they had access to limited facilities at that time.

However, since 1978, as many people in the world had no access to new medical services and given the efficacy of many techniques of traditional medicine, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been focusing on the development and promotion of traditional medicine (Nasseri, 2005: 44-45).

In modern medicine, practitioners in the field of empirical sciences have been able to take very effective steps to improve the health of human communities using the latest technology and the latest methods of surgical diagnosis and psychiatric procedures. But at the same time, it must be acknowledged that modern medicine has not yet been able to provide a complete and reliable answer to the demands and needs of mankind, so that today we are witnessing the increasing tendency of patients with mental and physical illnesses to use traditional medicine.
The question now is: To what extent are Muslims’ religious teachings on health consistent with the views of physicians and psychologists? In addition to that, to what extent are the religious teachings effective in improving Muslims’ health?,

DEFINITION OF HEALTH

The term health is defined in the WHO Statute as follows:

“The concept of health is not just the absence of disease and maim, but it means the complete physical, psychological, and social comfort” (last, 1989, 89-89).

Reflecting on the above definition, it can be said that although this definition considers the positive and negative aspects of health and its physical, psychological, and social dimensions, it does not make it explicit whether people with a mild ailment or those who live in a polluted and toxic environment are considered as healthy or sick people.
Now that we are familiar with the concept of health, we address two types of health, i.e. physical and mental health:

1. Physical health
The discussion of physical health and factors affecting it as an organic phenomenon and one of the important components of individual and social human identification has been one of the most important discussions of human societies in the past and present, so that experts consider physical health as the greatest divine blessing and the first prerequisite for human happiness.

Scientists have found that having a healthy body is not possible without complying with health rules., as people who do not pay much attention to health issues are less tolerant of diseases. Besides, scientists believe that having proper nutrition, doing physical exercises and activities, and the non-use of opiates and alcohol are among the most important factors affecting physical health.

Not having physical defects and having a healthy body is the aspiration of every human being. As a healthy person without any physical defect by taking care of this divine blessing can feel both happiness and make others feel happy.

Of course, in the twentieth century, the advancement of biological and medical sciences and the discovery of antibiotics and vaccination led to the domination of the mind-body dichotomy (1596-1650) of René Cardar, the famous French scientist, on medical science. According to this dichotomy, the human body is like a machine and its actions are merely mechanical and its mind is considered to be a spiritual thing that is different from body (Tabaraei, 2010: 9).

2. Mental health
It seems that is the issue of physical health will be incomplete and insufficient without taking into account other dimensions of health because usually a person can be called perfectly healthy who is both physically and mentally in a good state. Obviously, someone who does not enjoy mental health is not considered a perfectly healthy person, and a healthy community is the one whose members will endeavor to promote their mental and physical health and use this health to enhance the standards of their personal and social life. Physical and mental health, in addition to creating a sense of happiness and hope, can make a person friendly, sympathetic and tolerant in dealing with his fellowmen.

Of course, the environmental factors (cultural, economic, social, etc.), along with individual factors (genetics and physiology, beliefs, positive emotions, etc.) are effective in human mental health. But we do not discuss it here in large part with the volume of the article.

Medical practitioners and psychologists have provided various definitions for indicators of mental health such as the absence of mental illness, having emotional balance, social harmony, feeling of comfort and peace, personal integrity, and understanding oneself and the environment (Ibid., 10-11). The World Health Organization (WHO) has also defined mental health as the ability for having coherent and balanced relationships with others, modifying the individual and social environment, solving the potential problems, and fair personal desires (Ibid., 12).

Pondering the above definitions, one can say that the owners of these definitions emphasize chemical, microbial, and genetic aspects that account for material and physical aspects of mental health and do not pay much attention to the impact of other factors such as economic and political factors on mental health. This is due to the ideas proposed by Descartes, the French theorist. As suggested by Schultz, according to Descartes, human psyche interacts with only a part of the body that is pineal gland in the brain pectoral, and this interaction is based on mechanical principles (Devon B. Schultz, and Sidney Ellen Schultz, 1999, 58).

HEALTH FROM THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

Now that the concept of physical and mental health has become somewhat clear, we need to get acquainted with the views of Islam in this regard.

1. Islam and physical health
The spiritual and social development of a human depends on his physical health and a physically ill person is less effective in advancing spiritual and general goals. The Islamic religion like other divine religions is not inattentive to people’s physical health and has frequently stressed the importance of the health of the body. For example, Islam considers sport as a necessary activity for the health and happiness of Muslims and emphasizes the strengthening of the body through sports in particular sports such as swimming and shooting-off. In addition, it is believed that spirituality and religiosity play a vital role in creating good traits in the human character and do not allow loneliness, absurdity, and depression to affect the human personality. A religious person, with the support of spirituality, contributes to the prosperity of a healthy and dynamic society.

In its health guidelines, Islam invites Muslims to improve their physical health. Virtue and piety have a significant effect on physical health and, consequently, on mental health. According to Imam Ali (AS): “Piety. . . heals the diseases of your body” (Imam Ali, 1380,658).

Islam has a special focus on the physical health of individuals and even prohibits religious practices when they are harmful for the body (Quran, Baghera: 184).

In excerpts of their valuable remarks, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the infallible Imams (AS) also emphasize the importance of maintaining physical health. A hadith about the divine rights and family rights quoted from the Prophet of Islam (PBUH) says: “Your body has a right to you” (Majlesi, 1998, 128).

In addition, in jurisprudential rulings that have been derived from religious sources, the Lazarar (No harm) law denounces actions that bring harm to oneself and others. Therefore, it can be said that the religion of Islam, which does not allow going to extremes and recommends balance in affairs, expects Muslims to value their physical health.

2. Islam and mental health
Mental health and comfort of the people in every society is one of the most important and vital issues of their lives. As was stated in the discussion of physical health, the concepts of physical and mental health are closely interconnected and based on the popularity among the Iranian athletes believed that a healthy mind is found in the healthy body.

The rulings of Islam with their worldly-afterlife approach that is based on balance and moderation play a fundamental role in promoting mental health among the faithful. In the religious culture, the world is considered as a farmland for the hereafter (Majlesi, 1998, 225).

Besides, a devout person, inspired by the sense of hope and life in the hereafter, does not feel lonely, depressed, and absurd, and interact with other people based on patience and affection. In the Holy Quran, “recommending others to observe rights” and “recommending others to be patient and tolerant” are considered as basic principles that need to be observed by all Muslims (Quran, Asr: 4).

According to the foregoing Islamic teachings, believers are considered as brothers for each other and do not suffer from loneliness, lethargy, and depression and their presence in the community results in the happiness and dynamism of the society. Monotheism, belief in the Hereafter and eternal life create self-esteem and a positive view of life and the spirit of good interactions with others, thereby creating a healthy and balanced society. Concerning affection and constructive engagement with others, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) says: People of my nation will always live in peace and welfare as long as they love each other (Tusi,1993, 647).

Research shows that prayer and worship can be one of the main ways of preventing and managing mental-psychological problems suffered by mankind, and religious people suffer from less mental, emotional, and moral disorders and feel more relaxed and happy than non-religious people. In addition, they commit less crimes, offences, and suicides.

A. Mental health in Islam

Mental health is a science for better living and social welfare that embraces all aspects of human life from embryonic life to death. Mental health helps individuals to adapt to their environment by using the right psychological and emotional techniques and choose better solutions to their problems. Therefore, mental health is defined as the provision of the context for individual and social development and growth, the prevention of mental disorders, and the provision of proper treatment and rehabilitation (Jalali, Rostaminezhad, 2011, 43). In a prophetic hadith, health and security are mentioned as two blessings that human beings will not appreciate unless they lose them (Ibn Babvieh, 1983, 34).

The study of the teachings of Islam like other divine religions shows that the concept of prevention is one of the important principles of religion in creating mental and physical health and the health of individuals depends on the prevention of the incidence of physical and mental illness. As the observance of the rules of individual and social health leads to physical health, the observance of mental health principles helps individuals to preserve their mental health and prevents the occurrence of mental disorders.

B. Ways to provide mental health from the viewpoint of Islam
Some psychologists believe that religiosity and having a strong belief in religion are important elements of mental health, and there is a long history of treating mental patients through heart faith among religious followers. Psychologists consider peace of mind and a sense of satisfaction in life as one of the essential characteristics of healthy people, and since believers have enough mental peace and confidence because of their reliance on God, they are less caught up with emotions and emotional anxieties. Here, we discuss a few cases that, according to Islam, lead to mental health and reduce anxiety and distress:

1. Islam, faith, and worship
According to the opinions of the Islamic leaders, Islam is a religion that grants peace of mind and mental health to believers. Accordingly, Imam Ali (AS) said: “Thanks God for founding the religion of Islam. He founded it to provide security for those who believe in Islam and those who converted to Islam (Imam Ali, 1380, 308). Therefore, those who believe in a unique and powerful God enjoy mental and psychological peace, and they feel strength and faith, while others who do not have strong faith will endure loss in their entire life. Divine religions have emphatically tried to establish the relationship between the believers and God through divine worship and remembrance. In Islam, the constant recitation of the Quran and saying the prayers of the infallibles (AS) have been recommended as the best way to communicate with the Creator. Having a permanent relationship with God enhances the spirit of trust, peace of mind, and sense of empowerment, and creates purposefulness and order in the human character that plays a direct role in ensuring people’s mental health.

2. Marriage and family
Family as the first social group is the manifestation of human emotions and serves as a basis for loyalty and a sense of cooperation and support. Creating a warm and intimate environment through family formation can play an essential role in creating mental health and peace. The Islamic religion, like other divine religions, has a special interest in the institution of family and considers it as decent and recommended action, and in some cases emphatically recommended and even obligatory (Meshkini, 1987, 10) As the Prophet of Islam says: Anyone who wants to follow my own nature (natural religion), he should follow my traditions, and one of my traditions is marriage (ibid., 21). He also considers marriage as the most venerable social institution that God has endorsed. He says: “In Islam, there is no institution that is more venerable and dear to God than marriage (Majlesi, 1998, 222). And about the importance of the prayer of the married person, he says: two Rak’ats of a married person’s prayer is better and more valuable than seventy-one Rak’ats of a single person’s prayer (Hor Ameli, 1977, 7), and also adds: “A person who is seeking to support his family from the divine grace, he will be rewarded more than a person who does jihad for the sake of Allah (Ibid., 7). The Prophet (PBUH) also says: “Choose a wife for a single person, so that God will make his mood decent and expand his sustenance/daily portion and his magnanimity (Meshkini, 1987, 14).

In the Holy Quran, marriage and the formation of the family are considered as divine signs, and choosing a spouse has been introduced as a source of mental peace and well-being and the a source of friendship and mercy (Quran, Rome: 21). Marriage, in addition to creating peace in the human body and mind, keeps him away from the illnesses caused by celibacy. A single person has less sense of responsibility and the formation of the family creates the responsibility and purpose for individuals and makes them more active in social and public affairs. Sometimes, being single results in doing things and actions that are not rationally justified and endangers a person’s mental health.